A plant community, even Phytozönon, is an abstract plant community ( Phytozoenose ) with typical composition of species. Plants grow depending on the ecological site often characteristic in such companies and form the botanical part of biotopes. Because of the rule-based socialization of species is called the doctrine of the plant communities as a plant sociology. The doctrine of plant communities is called Phytozoenologie.
Science and application
Depending on the ecological requirements, potency (or tolerance) and competitive strength are emerging in the course of succession plant communities, which may be identified by a specific species composition. Plant communities are represented by vegetation surveys, identified in the tabular comparison, then described and classified in the phytosociological system according to the descriptive empirical method of plant sociology.
Plant communities are in an ecological context of their locations. Heinz Ellenberg examined the correlations between the ecological requirements of the species and their locations and reinforced the notion pointer value. Vegetation surveys thus allow clear conclusions on the environmental, abiotic site factors of a plant stand. Reinhold Tüxen has stressed that plant communities are constructed by the combination of species and, therefore, at the conclusion of a plant community on the location of the characteristic species set must be taken into account to determine in addition to the biotic and inorganic and anthropogenic influences on the location.
Most are also zoocoenosis, the communities of animals, adapted to their significantly influenced by the plant community habitat. The plant community stands in interaction and dependence with the animal societies ( zoocoenosis ). Here, the groups often influence each other (see biocenosis ). A plant community may also be a certain associated Zoozönose be assigned. Conversely, provide information on the ecological demands the presence of animals in a plant community. Plant communities can be distinguished according to their origin.
Because of these factors can be derived this plant communities are often the basis for the classification and measurement of biotopes at a biotope mapping. The plant sociology is therefore an important tool in applied landscape ecology. Here is the real vegetation facilities consisting of replacement companies charged. From the substitute communities, soil and climate, the potential natural vegetation can be derived and the original natural vegetation can be reconstructed via organic finds and climate models. Botany, zoology, soil science, landscape planning and nature conservation use, for example, the concept of potential natural vegetation ( PNV ) and the current - potential natural vegetation ( hpnV ).
In the various theories of succession ( climax vegetation, mosaic - cycle concept, Megaherbivorentheorie ) the plant community plays a key role in the classification and discussion of various successional stages and successional patterns in terrestrial and semi-terrestrial ecosystems.
Classification and characterization of plant communities
For the determination of plant community the frequency of occurrence of different types and their loyalty to the vegetation units plays a crucial role:
- Characteristic species
- A differentiating
Moreover, the presence or absence of certain species groups is evaluated as an indication of the plant community. Species groups are due to similar ecological characteristics (ecological species groups ), similar sociological behavior ( sociological species groups ) or a rule-based common ( statistically proven ) occurrence in vegetation units ( floristic species groups ).
A distinction is made between natural and created by humans or by animals ( anthropogenic or zoogenen ) plant communities.
Examples of plant communities
Forest - see the forest communities of Central Europe [Note 1]
The full name is listed with (analogous to the name of a species ) the name of the describer of the relevant company and the date of the specification. This is especially important if several authors have similar sounding companies described, or if the same name is used by different authors in different meanings. If a company regrouped in the system described later, the name of the describer is written in parentheses and the name of changing the author added. For pure changes of notation is em. ( for emendavit ). Author's name (especially widely known and common ) are often abbreviated for space reasons.
- Association: Carici Fagetum Rübel 1930 ex Moor 1952 em. Lohm. 1953
- Association: Carici albae Tilietum cordatae Müller et Görs 1958
- Association: Dentario heptaphylli Fagetum ( Br.-Bl. 1932) Th.Müll. 1966
- Order: Quercetalia pubescenti - petreae Klika 1933 corr. Moracec in Beguin et Theurillat 1984