Polish United Workers' Party
The Polish United Workers' Party ( Polska Polish Zjednoczona partia Robotnicza, PZPR, in German also PZPR ) was a communist party, which at the time of the People's Republic of Poland ( 1948-1989 ) there had a monopoly of power in the framework of a so-called dictatorship of the proletariat.
She had set itself the introduction of Marxism- Leninism in Poland to the destination. According to their ideology they represented the vanguard of the working class.
Objectives and Structure
By the year 1989, the PZPR was equipped with almost absolute power, the state party. According to the constitutional amendment of 1976, she was the " leading force " of the nation. They also controlled the bureaucratic organized state planned economy. The main objective was the creation of a communist society and the building of communism around the world. The party was organized according to the principle of " democratic centralism " after the theoretical determination of the leadership, decision-making and leadership of the party should be democratic. In practice playing the CC ( Komitet Centralny, KC ), the Politburo ( Biuro Polityczne ) and Secretariat, the decisive role. In addition, these institutions were again subjected themselves to strict control by the rulers of the Soviet Union. These same met the most important political and personnel decisions, although these, according to the statute, for the party days ( zjazd ) would have been, which took place every five to six years in about. In the periods between congresses, meetings of the Party organizations were held at the level of provinces, Powiats, communities and businesses.
The smallest cell organization represented the so-called grass-roots party organization ( Podstawowa Organizacja Partyjna, POP ), which worked in factories, universities, cultural institutions, etc.. The most important role of the PZPR took over in the professional politicians, the so-called " party activists " ( aktyw partyjny ). This collection of people who were " recommended " for the management of state institutions, social organizations, trade unions, etc.. At the peak of its development ( late 1970s ) the number of members amounted to over 3.5 million. The Politburo of the Central Committee, the Secretariat and the Woiwodschaftskomitees decided on the allocation of key positions within the party, but also in any institution which 'state' were designated in the name - from central authorities, to even to small state-owned enterprises and cooperatives. This system of governance of the state and business was called nomenklatura. In some areas of the economy, the nomenklatura was, however, checked with the consent of the PZPR from their allied parties, ie, the United Peasant Party ( Zjednoczone Stronnictwo Ludowe, ZSL ) in the field of agriculture and the Democratic Party ( Stronnictwo Demokratyczne, SD) in the field of crafts, of small business and certain cooperatives.
The Polish United Workers ' Party was founded to December 21, 1948 at a joint congress of the Polish Workers' Party ( Polska Partia Robotnicza, PPR) and the Polish Socialist Party ( Polska Partia Socjalistyczna, PPS ) of 15. This was due to the removal of functionaries of the PPS that the association, which was actually a takeover by the PPR opposed, and those were accused of the PPR where " nationalist Rechtsabweichlertum ". It is estimated that about 25 % of the Socialists came to the " siding" or were ousted from political life.
Case of the PZPR
As of January 1990, when the fall of the PZPR seemed almost certain people building the party started across the country to occupy the theft of property and the destruction of the archives to prevent. On 29 January 1990, the XI found. Congress of the PZPR held on the transformation of the party should be taken forward. Ultimately, it came to its self-dissolution. Some of the delegates decided to establish two new social-democratic oriented parties. To this end, the PZPR of the CPSU received a million dollars as so-called "Moscow Credit ".
Former officials of the PZPR founded the Social Democracy of the Polish Republic ( Socjaldemokracja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, SdRP ). Their main initiators were Leszek Miller and Mieczysław Rakowski. The SdRP should, among other things take over all rights and obligations of the PZPR and assist in the settlement of the property of the former PZPR. This had in the late 1980s, considerable revenue, mainly from the property, its possession, as well as from the company " Prasa - Książka - Ruch " (Press Book Movement), which in turn were given special tax breaks. At this time the membership fees accounted for only 30 % of the total revenue of the PZPR.
After the dissolution of the PZPR and foundation of SdRP the remaining portion of the members founded the Social Democratic Union of the Republic of Poland ( Unia Socjaldemokratyczna Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, USdRP ) which later in Polish Social Democratic Union ( Polska Unia Socjaldemokratyczna ) renamed and the motion July 8 (Ruch 8 Lipca ).
Towards the end of 1990, an intense debate about the way the acquisition of the assets of the former PZPR took place in the Sejm. This consisted, inter alia, from 3000 real estate, of which about half was used without any legal basis. Proponents of the acquisition of the assets of the PZPR argued that this was caused by robbery and payments from the state budget, and had therefore been prepared by the Company as a whole. The opponents of the SdRP were of the opinion that wealth is created through membership fees and demanded the SdRP that managed the assets at this time should, fortune legally take the succession of the PZPR. Here, the movable property and the accounts of the former PZPR were not subject to control by the Sejm.
On 9 November 1990, the Sejm passed the "Law on the acquisition of the assets of the former PZPR ". This should ultimately lead to the acquisition of real estate assets of the PZPR by the state. Part of the property was taken over by the year 1992, largely in favor of municipal authorities. To the rest stopped litigation until the year 2000. The movable property and financial assets of PZPR have virtually disappeared. According to the information provided by deputies of the SdRP about 90-95 % of the party 's assets were used for the payment of severance allowances to full-time employees as well as for social purposes.
By the year 1954, the Chairman of the Central Committee at the head of the party.
- First Secretary Bolesław Bierut (22 December 1948-12 March 1956; . To 17 March 1954 as General Secretary)
- First Secretary Edward Ochab (20 March 1956-21. October 1956 )
- First Secretary Władysław Gomulka (21 October 1956-20. December 1970 )
- First Secretary Edward Gierek (20 December 1970-6. September 1980)
- First Secretary Stanislaw Kania (6 September 1980-18. October 1981)
- First Secretary Wojciech Jaruzelski (18 October 1981-29. July 1989 )
- First Secretary Mieczyslaw Rakowski (29 July 1989-29. January 1990)
- I. ( founding) Congress of the PZPR, 15th - 22nd December 1948
- Second Congress, 10th - 17th March 1954
- III. Congress, 10th - 19th March 1959
- Fourth Congress, 15th - 20th June 1964
- Fifth Congress, 11th - 16th November 1968
- VI. Congress, 6th - 11th November 1971
- Seventh Congress, 8th - 12th December 1975
- Eighth Congress, 11th - 15th February 1980
- IX. ( Extraordinary ) Congress, 14th - 20th July 1981
- Tenth Congress, June 29 - 3rd July 1986
- XI. (Last ) Party Conference, 27 - 30th January 1990 ( Ends with self- dissolution of the party )
Among the most famous activists of the PZPR also still included:
- Edward Babiuch
- Jakub Berman
- Józef Cyrankiewicz
- Piotr Jaroszewicz
- Aleksander Kwasniewski
- Zbigniew Messner
- Hilary Minc
- Mieczysław Moczar
- Józef Oleksy
- Józef Pinkowski
- Marian Spychalski
- Jerzy Szmajdziński
- Aleksander Zawadzki
Seat of the Central Committee
Up to 1990, the decision-making center of the PZPR was in a in the years 1948 to 1952 built from compulsory contributions of the entire nation building. This was officially called the House of Party ( Dom Partii ), colloquially contrast White House (Polish: Bialy Dom). Since 1991 located in the building, the Center for Finance and Banking (Polish Centrum Bankowo - Finansowe ). In the period 1991-2000 had here also the Warsaw Stock Exchange is relocating in the years 1918-1931 was at this point the building of the Ministry of Transport and before that, 1831-1918, the Court of Auditors.