Pope Celestine III
Celestine III. (* Around 1106 in Rome, † January 8, 1198 ibid ) was from 30 March 1191 to his death Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. The name Celestine means " Heavenly " (latin ) Pope Celestine III. was buried in S. Giovanni in Laterano. With the great fire in 1308 his tomb was lost.
Pope Celestine III. was as Giacinto Bobone, also: born Jacinto Bobo, Bobo Hyacinto, dt Hyacinth Bobo, from the Roman patrician family of the Bobo- Orsini in Rome. He grabbed a career at the Curia and testified in the year 1121 papal documents. Since 1126 he was prior of the subdeacons at the Lateran Basilica in Rome and thus more influential position. He sympathized with Pope Innocent II rival, the antipope Anacletus, but kept after his death in 1138 his rank in the Curia.
Hyacinth took in 1141 of Peter Abelard thing to, presumably supported by Guido of Città di Castello, who later became Pope Celestine II, who as he had been a pupil of Abelard. Possibly Hyacinth met with Abelard and Arnold of Brescia before the Council of Sens in 1141 in Paris and he took as papal observers directly at the Council party for Abelard. Thus he drew the fierce objection of Bernard of Clairvaux up.
After the death of Innocent II in 1143, Guido was chosen from Città di Castello as the new Pope Celestine II, but held office only five and a half months. In 1144 Hyacinth Bobo received his doctorate cardinal deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, 1154-55 and 1172-74 he traveled as a legate to Spain. Several Legatsreisen also took him to France. Hyacinth was of a conciliatory attitude towards the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, and exhorted Thomas Beckett for clemency to King Henry II of England.
As more than 85 -year-old Hyacinth was probably chosen as a compromise candidate as pope on March 30, 1191. He chose the name Pope Celestine III .. Although he had already for 46 years was Cardinal at this time, he had received no ordination and was only a deacon. Therefore, it was on April 13, 1191 Holy Saturday, a priest and a day later, on Easter Sunday, ordained a bishop.
The political aims of the Emperor Henry VI. sat the aged Pope from the beginning opposed to passive resistance. On the second day of Easter of the year 1191 he performed as the first official act of the imperial coronation of Henry and his wife Konstanze in Rome. Jesus fulfilled the promise of his end of March 1191 deceased predecessor Clement III. from the year 1188th Even otherwise, he held on to the political line of its predecessor and leaned as lord of the Norman Kingdom of Sicily in particular the hereditary claim to the Kingdom from Constance. The usurpation of the Sicilian throne after the sudden death of King William II, the nephew of Constance was 1189/Anfang end in 1190 with the express approval of Pope Clement III. takes place. On kingship Tancred of Lecce also Celestine III held. fixed although after sizilischem inheritance Konstanze and her husband Henry VI. the legitimate heirs of the kingdom were. After the first attempt at a military conquest of the kingdom was failed by the emperor in the summer of 1191, the papal Curia turned face up on the side of the usurper. In June of the following year and the recognition King Tancred was completed as the legitimate successor of the Norman kings, with the signing of the Concordat of Gravina. The relations with the imperial court were broken against it. After the death of Tancred in 1194 and carried out in the same year conquest of the kingdom by Henry VI. Celestine III refused. continue the recognition of a Hohenstaufen dominion over Sicily. With different offers to the Curia Henry VI tried. in vain to contact the legitimacy of his rule. Against these plans to secure the German and Sicilian kingdom and possibly the imperial dignity of the house of Hohenstaufen permanently, was opposed Celestine III. with a delaying action, but hard-fought battle and refused to allow the Emperor to end the feud takeover of the kingdom. Not even the crusade to change anything, the Emperor had offered to be able to still agree with the papal Curia.
Celestine excommunicated in 1193 Leopold V of Austria for the capture of Richard the Lionheart and said the interdict on his lands from. Against Henry VI. However, he made no sanctions because Richard had entered with King Tancred a military alliance against the Emperor.
1191 saw Celestine with the Teutonic Order, which had been founded in 1190 during the Third Crusade as a hospital order.
Pope Celestine III. tried at the end of 1197, voluntarily abdicate in favor of the favored him as the successor Cardinal Giovanni di San Paolo, but this was strongly opposed by opposition forces in the College of Cardinals. Celestine III. died on January 8, 1198 in Rome.