Pope Clement XI
The family of Giovanni Francesco Albani went back to a several generations earlier from Albania who had come to Italy nobles. Albani in Rome studied ancient languages and law. Pope Innocent XI. appointed him Secretary of Briefs. On February 13, 1690 he was knighted by Pope Alexander VIII on Cardinal Deacon of the titular church of Santa Maria in Aquiro. On November 23, 1700 Albani was elected as the new pope. He called himself after day Saints, Clement of Rome, as had done among other things, Pope Martin V in front of him.
In the Spanish War of Succession between France and Austria, he took the side of the French king Louis XIV, his grandson, Philip V of Bourbon, had brought to the Spanish throne.
Emperor Joseph I had let occupy 1706 Parma and Piacenza. 1708 moved the imperial troops in the Papal States a ( Comacchiokrieg ) and approached the city of Rome. Clement XI. Subsequently, on January 15, 1709 had a contract with Emperor Joseph I close. In it, he undertook to Charles VI. , The brother of Emperor Joseph I recognize as the rightful King of Spain and to give him the kingdom of Naples as a fief.
As expected, Philip V broke out the contact to Clement XI. from. 1713/14 of Rastatt peace was concluded, and Philip remained after he had renounced the French succession for himself and his descendants, King of Spain.
Regardless of Clement XI. take, the Duke Victor Amadeus II of Savoy was awarded the Kingdom of Sicily in the Peace of Utrecht. This was, however, been a papal fief for over 500 years. When Victor Amadeus then claimed the ecclesiastical rights of the King of Sicily, imposed Clement XI. the interdict over Sicily. An end to this conflict ended in 1720, when the Habsburgs acquired the UK in exchange for Sardinia.
After the Elector Friedrich III. of Brandenburg at Königsberg himself "King in Prussia " had himself crowned on January 18, 1701 rose Clement XI. objection, however, as Prussia was former German religious country. For him, Friedrich III remained. life of the Margrave of Brandenburg.
Clement XI. was buried at his own request in the floor of the choir of St. Peter.
In 1700 Clement XI founded. a Commission on the review of the Gregorian calendar. On the occasion of scientific studies therefore a Meridian was incorporated into the floor of the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli. In 1701 he founded the Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiastici.