Pope Martin V
Pope Martin V, previously di Oddo Colonna, (* 1368 in Genazzano, † February 20, 1431 in Rome ) was from 1417 until his death in Roman Pope. With his elevation to the Council of Constance ended the Western Schism lasted since 1378. Pope Martin V was buried on February 20, 1431 in the Basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano. Today his grave is covered with a glass plate on which the pilgrims like to throw coins and bills. The grave was opened in 1853 ( 1 grave ) and moved to its present location ( second grave ).
Oddo Colonna was the son of Agapito Colonna and Caterina from the house of Conti. He studied law in Perugia and was among several popes in various functions operate ( for example, as apostolic prothonotary ). From the Consistory of June 12, 1405, he was cardinal deacon of San Giorgio in Velabro. He collapsed during the schism in 1408 with belonging to the Roman faction and was also involved in the Council of Pisa.
On November 11 ( St. Martin's ) in 1417, he was of 23 cardinals and 30 delegates of the council Council, according to the depositions of John XXIII. in Pisa, Gregory XII. in Rome and Benedict XIII. in Avignon, elected pope during the Council of Constance ( one of the two papal elections in Germany ). When he chose the name of the Saints ( Martin of Tours ). On November 21, 1417 he received after he had been consecrated after his election as priest and bishop, the papal crown ( tiara ). His clerical career was remarkable, as a born out of wedlock in the Catholic Church actually considered to be unworthy in regard to the priesthood and hierarchy.
Even during the long Sedisvakanz after the abdication of Pope Gregory on July 4, 1415, the council participants argued about the urgently needed reforms after the long schism. But the indecision of the council participants as well as the incipient moral decay of the Church and of the Council prevented this. As regards the latter haunting sermons have survived from this period. On April 6, 1415 supremacy of councils over the pope was defined by the Council in the decree Haec sancta synodus.
From the beginning, put the Pope Martin, in contradiction to this, a renewal of the primacy of. He ignored the core problems of the reform completely. He never had the intention to confirm the decisions of the Council. It was an attempt to move the Curia to Germany or back to Avignon. This but only just freed papacy would again have to be subordinate national interests. Both suggestion from Martin leaned why.
Johanna II of Naples had occupied with their troops still Rome. In addition, the Papal States was again lost in utter chaos. After Martin had therefore to initially reside in Mantua and Florence, he took a three years after his election on September 29, 1420 in Rome, after the Queen had their troops come off.
In Rome, Martin began to rebuild the dilapidated town and the equally ailing Papal States. As the first Renaissance pope, he revived the art re, by bringing many significant artists to his court. The Cardinals were appointed by him with this new zeitgeist.
At a reform of the Church, Pope Martin was not interested. Although he was personally modest man. However, his unbridled nepotism was very soon almost the whole of Lazio in the hands of his family. The Colonna were transformed from feudal to a powerful dynasty that as a persecutor and the persecuted played a role in the papacy until the 16th century.
In Naples, the rule of Joan II of the, also supported by the French Pope, pretender to the throne Louis of Anjou was threatened. Martin had enfeoffed him in 1420 with the Kingdom of Naples. To protect themselves, they adopted initially Alfonso V of Aragon. After she had but a falling out with Alfons, the Queen of Naples changed course, said the adoption of the King of Aragon invalid and now adopted instead the Anjou Louis. Alfonso of Aragon, King of Sardinia since 1416 already, the dissolution of the adoption did not recognize. However, the resolution proved only a minor setback for Alfons - 1442 he was King of Naples. The clashes in the Kingdom of Naples meant an enormous strengthening of the papacy, because the last of the kings of Naples were dropped meddling in affairs of the Curia now.
Pope Martin ended with five council nations from their own concordats, although a circumcision of the papal centralism and fiscalism awards were planned but clarified open problems of the church-state relationship.
Pope Martin sat at the election of the Archbishop of Trier in 1430 his favorites Raban of Helmstatt against the elected by the chapter of Jacob Sierck by.
Next he was dedicated to protecting the Jewish communities in Europe, and banned pogroms and accusations of ritual murders. These prohibitions helped but only in Avignon, in the rest of Europe they remained without effect.
On April 22, 1418 the Council of Constance had ended. The conciliar decree " Frequens " ( October 9, 1417 ) had called for a meeting of the Council to continue the work of reform at intervals of not more than 10 years. Pope Martin held on to their transfer him obligation and convened shortly before his death, a council in Basel. Create it could, however, only his successor Eugenius IV on 23 July 1431st