Pope Paschal II
Paschal II, civil Raniero di Bieda, (* Bleda di Santa Sofia, Forlì, † January 21, 1118 in Rome) was 1099-1118 Pope of the Catholic Church. Its name means " the Paschal " ( born at Easter ) (Hebrew and Latin. )
Raniero was born in Bleda (or Galeate ) in the area of Forlì. He held his first significant function as abbot of San Lorenzo fuori le mura. From Gregory VII in 1078 raised to cardinal priest of San Clemente, he held from 1089 to 1090 the office of legate in France and Spain.
On August 14, 1099 he became pope. He was the first in his enthronement winning pope. In the Investiture Controversy, he followed the policies of his predecessor Gregory VII in 1102, he renewed the ban against Emperor Henry IV in 1104 succeeded Paschal, to move the second son of Henry IV, the future Henry V. to a rebellion against the father. The invitation of the Diet of Mainz in January 1106 to negotiate the investiture, he struck out. Instead, the investiture was at the synod of Guastalla again banned by the emperor. In the same year succeeded Paschal II to settle the investiture controversy in England between Anselm of Canterbury and the English King Henry I..
In the February 9, 1111 was set out in a contract between the Pope and Henry V in Sutri that the German king renounced the right of investiture, and in return Paschal II, Henry V is crowned emperor and the regalia returns. Three days later failed the contract because the secular and the ecclesiastical princes did not agree. Henry V. Then, captured the Pope and several cardinals. Two months later Paschal agreed under duress to the Treaty of Ponte MAMMOLO who was crowned emperor in which the emperor granted the right of investiture and Henry promised.
A Lateran Council in the following year in 1112 declared the contract null and void because it was signed under duress. In October 1112, the Emperor was excommunicated. In 1117, Henry V pulled again against Rome. Matilda of Tuscany had bequeathed her vast possessions in Tuscany the Church before her death. When she died in 1115, but as belonging to the realm of the Emperor these areas claimed. Paschal was forced to flee from Rome and was able to return early in 1118 after the departure of the emperor, but died a few days later.