Pre-Pottery Neolithic B

The Preceramic Neolithic B or PPNB ( Pre- Pottery Neolithic B for ) was defined by Kathleen Kenyon on the basis of the findings of Jericho. It is the younger stage of Akeramikums and following the Preceramic Neolithic A ( PPNA ) of the Levant. The PPNB refers to a period in which sedentary agriculture and livestock farming has already taken place, pottery vessels, however, in the region were unknown. From clay and other materials small animal and human figures were produced ( Cafer Höyük, Mureybet ). Vessels were made of plaster or quick lime ( Vaisselles Blanches or white ware ). Even stone vessels are known, some in the shape of animals ( Bouqras ). From ʿ Ain Ghazal (Jordan) human hollow figures are known, which are made of a calcareous material.


Syria, Israel, Palestine and South-East Turkey.

Construction and settlement patterns

The houses are typically mehrräumig and rectangular, in contrast to the round houses of the previous epoch. Good examples are known from Çayönü ( grill - plan houses ) and Cafer Höyük.

Lithic inventory

A bidirectional degradation keel- shaped cores is typical. Units have scratches, arrowheads, sickle blades, bits and hatchets (eg Nahal Lavan 109) known. For the PPBN specific forms are:

  • Çayönü devices, long lateralretuschierte blades with significantly thickened proximal end of a hitherto unknown purpose
  • Byblos - peaks, of which one knows several stages of development
  • Leaf-shaped peaks with basal surface retouching
  • Lace with capped base ( " truncated base points")
  • Helwan tips

As raw material flint and Anatolian obsidian was used.


We are especially famous settlement burials. Grave goods are common, as well as take over the PPNA animal bones to. The faces of the dead were partially replicated in plaster ( Jericho, Nahal Hemar ). The skull is frequently or buried separately.


The PPNB is scheduled for 8800-7000 BC and corresponds to levels 3-4 of the Maison de l' Orient. The dating of the end of PPNB depends on whether an independent PPNC phase (7000-6400 BC) is separated, as often in Israel usual, or this the late PPNB ( PPNB final) imputes.

Related phenomena

Partly also the Cypriot PPNB Pre-Pottery and the cultures of Central Anatolia ( Cafer Höyük ) are attributed to the PPNB.

Important Locations

  • Jericho (Palestine)
  • Bouqras (Syria )
  • ʿ Ain Ghazal (Jordan)
  • Nevalı Çori (Turkey)
  • Mureybet (Syria )
  • Çayönü (Turkey)