Presentation of Jesus at the Temple
Presentation of the Lord, latin presentations of Jesus in Templo, ancient sacrifice of Jesus in the Temple, or Candlemas ( formerly: Immaculate Cleaning, purificatio Mariae ) is a festival which is celebrated on February 2, the fortieth day after Christmas.
- 2.1 history
- 2.2 Liturgical Calendar
The story of the Presentation of Jesus that appeal to a brief reference to the circumcision on the eighth day after his birth ( Lk 2,21 EU) followed by reports of two here interwoven rituals that have their roots in provisions of the biblical book of Leviticus. The sequence described in Luke ( circumcision - Cleaning of the woman - the sanctification of the firstborn ) corresponds to the prescribed by the Torah time scheme.
According to the biblical law of Moses, the woman applies after the birth of a boy 40 days ( seven plus 33 days; ( Lev 12:2-4 EU) ) and after the birth of a girl 80 days (14 plus 66 days; ( Lev 12, 5 EU ) ) as unclean ( Lev 12:1-8 EU). At the time of Temple worship they had to pass after these days as a purification sacrifice a priest a lamb and a dove in financial trouble, failing that, two turtledoves or young pigeons (Lev. 12.8 EU).
Sanctification of the firstborn
In addition, the firstborn son in memory was seen on the Passover night as the property of God ( Ex 13,2.15 EU) and handed over to him in the temple ( " represented " ), where he was trigger by a financial sacrifice ( Num 18,16 EU). The St. Luke's story of the Presentation of the Lord reported this Erstgeburtsweihe, but strangely enough, not from the initiation practiced to this day in traditional Judaism.
In the context of the presentation of Jesus it comes to an encounter with Simeon and the aged prophetess Anna.
This Christian feast Presentation of the Lord goes back to the 4th century. It originated in Jerusalem as a side feast of the birth of Christ The festival date was initially February 14 (40 days after the feast the Epiphany ( 6 January), popularly known as " Epiphany " ), from the 6th century, February 2 ( 40 days after the Solemnity of the Nativity of Jesus Christ on December 25). The 25th of December is counted according to liturgical counting as the first day of the forty -day period.
Stand originally handed down by Luke story of the Presentation of Jesus in the center of the festival, so once more came they, especially extra-biblical motifs. The Presentation of the Lord, who was indeed born after the New Testament Christmas stories in Bethlehem, became the first entry of Jesus into the city of David in Jerusalem. The ancient custom, contrary moved to the inhabitants of a city as their ruler on his first visit was early incorporated into the fixed liturgy. On the road from Jerusalem to Bethlehem was a monastery, which had established a woman named Hikelia. Hikelia to have their monks with candles in order to go to meet Christ and then jointly to go with him to the Holy City. In this legend is rooted in the 5th century, the resulting light procession, which in the Roman Catholic Christianity has a firm place in the festive liturgy to this day, including with the New Testament Scripture ( Lk 2,32 EU) is founded. The local parish church will accompany you in this liturgical staging the Holy City of Jerusalem, out of which opposed the procession participants Christ and then his coming in the light of the candles, which are especially dedicated to this celebration is. From the blessed candles can be expected in many cases also a disaster averting effect.
In the course of further developments, the focus of the presentation of Jesus at the feast Jesus Mother Mary moved. Mary was cleaning and Candlemas From the Feast of the Presentation of the Lord, which was reversed with the liturgical reforms of the 1960s.
With the advancing of the festival from the 14th to the 2nd February, a temporal proximity to the memorial of St arose. Blaise on 3 February and its related sacramental blessing of Blasius. The Blasius blessing will be donated to the Roman Catholic Church since the 16th century. In many places this act of blessing takes place also on Lichtmesstag.
Candlemas was in the Catholic Church earlier than the end of the Christmas season. Still remain standing until February 2nd in many Catholic churches and houses crib and Christmas tree. After the liturgical reforms of the Second Vatican Council the mid-1960s the Christmas period on the Feast of the Baptism of the Lord, the Sunday following the Solemnity of the Epiphany on January 6 ends. In the evangelical church year Epiphany is indeed considered by many to be the conclusion of the Christmas season, the liturgical calendar sees the Christmas festival circuit but only on the last Sunday after Epiphany as terminated at.
The Eastern Church calls the hard Hypapante ( Encounter). It emphasizes the aspect of meeting the Saviour with the pious of his people that await him. The Anglican churches celebrate the Feast of the Presentation of the Lord.
The Lutheran Church retained the date in their liturgical calendar at. Biblical readings are time LUT 3:1-4, Hebrews 2:14-18 Luke 2:22-24 and LUT ( 25-35) LUT. The festival is now celebrated in worship only in relatively few Lutheran congregations. However, the distinctive characteristic of this festival displaces the respective Sunday when February 2nd falls on a Sunday and it is not this is the last Sunday after Epiphany. From Johann Eccard one of the most famous choral comes to hard: Maria Braving the sanctuary. Johann Sebastian Bach wrote several cantatas for the Feast of the Presentation of the Lord, including peace and joy I depart, BWV 125
The Feast in the vernacular and tradition
The Feast of the Presentation of the Lord ( the Purification, Candlemas ) was in ancient times an important date during the year. With it joined payment deadlines, temporal fixations of employment and the beginning of the so-called agricultural year. In addition, some folk customs, proverbs, rhymes and weather rules based on this feast day.
- Special customs for light measurement in Leunaer district Spergau have been known since the 17th century. The colorful costume of light measurement runner in Spergau consists of many colorful ribbons and floral decorations that represent the revival of life and spring. The bishop moves along with other costumed characters (singers, dealer, Guckkastenmann, kitchen boys, registrar, Pritscher, registrar, Erb's ( straw ) bear, horses and soldiers) through the streets from house to house.
- By 1912, February 2 was a public holiday in Bavaria.
- In many parts of West Germany, southern Germany, Saxony, and in some regions of the Ore Mountains, it is still customary to leave the Christmas decorations are both the ecclesiastical and private rooms until February 2nd.
- In Saxony, and in some regions of the Ore end of the Christmas season is celebrated with a light measuring Vespers at Candlemas. Subsequently, the Christmas lights will be extinguished and hosted a banquet.
- In many communities in which the Swabian- Alemannic carnival is celebrated Candlemas is considered the beginning of Carnival
- Daylight should be longer compared to the time of the winter solstice, which is the longest night, " Christmas is a houndstooth, New Year's is a men step on Epiphany at a stag jump and light measurement to a whole hour. '"
- With the 2nd of February, the "peasant year " began: from here you can under the circumstances, the field work be resumed. On this day, however, ended the servants and " servant year" The servants got the rest of his annual salary paid and could - or should have - to find a new agency, or employment relationship with the old employer, usually a handshake to extend for another year. Most of the servants was that they reared poultry sold (see Glanglmarkt ). The day after, the Schlenggeltag began the short period until Agathatag on February 5, where the procession was to take place to the new employer and for the servants a kind of " annual leave " - the only - showed. Widespread was also the custom of the servants to give light measuring a pair of shoes as a reward for further work, or job search. At Candlemas therefore the workforce were jumbled and liaisons among servants, whom getting married for a long time was not permitted, often held only up to this point, where the saying " New Shoes, New Love " comes from.
- In addition, the farmer should on Candlemas still have half of the winter feed stocks for the animals in the camp.
- In addition, there are several proverbs that evaluate sunshine on Candlemas as a bad sign for the upcoming spring:
Is it at Candlemas bright and pure, will be a long winter. But when it storms and snows, Spring is not far off. Is it clear to light measurement and light, spring comes not so fast. If on Candlemas the badger sees his shadow, he goes again for six weeks in its construction.
- The Groundhog Day, the observation of the behavior of a marmot on this day in North America ( for example, particularly in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania), is the transfer of this nature observation in the context of the New World.
- To Candlemas shines for the first time the sunlight to early Mass in the church.
- As of February 2, could be eaten again in daylight to night: " Candlemas, ess by day ." So it is, for example, in Palatine:
" Candlemas, spider forgetful ' at Dag ze night gess '. "
(see also: spinning room )
See illustration - of - the Lord 's Church