Under procurement ( in the literature with the English terms Procurement or Purchasing called ) is understood in the broadest sense of business administration, both the purchasing and procurement logistics. Under procurement circumferences refers goods, services and rights.
- The procurement process is to ensure the demand and supply of economic goods. It includes, for example, in trade, the functions of purchasing, scheduling, receiving, auditing and accounts payable.
- After the narrow definitions focus is on the production: Everything to make available what is needed in the production (real production flow of goods )
- For service provision, the right goods ( ' objects ') must be in the right amount at the right time at the right place, at the right quality and at the right cost ( economically ) available ( " 6R ").
The object scope of the procurement is defined inconsistently:
- In the economy as a procurement in the broad sense refers to the cost-optimal provision of all input factors, which are necessary for operational service. Procurement objects can be materials, goods of tangible assets, rights, services, funding and personnel.
- Procurement in terms of materials management is concerned with obtaining necessary for production use factors, A., materials and assemblies.
- In the economic literature, all necessary to achieve the target property of the enterprise production factors ( raw materials and supplies, personnel / labor, capital, financial, real estate, services, rights, external information ) are referred to as procurement objects.
- In particular, the raising finance, real estate and personnel / labor brings a distinct landscape of problems with it, as are present in these areas, specific market conditions. Therefore independent sectors, such as finance, facility management area and the area of personnel responsible for this.
In common usage, ' procurement ' often in the narrow sense, as the assignment of material (raw, auxiliary and operating materials, semi-finished products, merchandise) and services interpreted.
Conceptual definition and tasks
Depending on the perspective, the procurement logistics part of the shopping area or vice versa. One possible approach is the following: When you shop at the store, then this is procurement. But if you steal the goods in the store, then this is illegal and therefore also no shopping, but procurement. It would follow that shopping would be a part of the procurement. The division of tasks between purchasing and procurement, however, is clear:
Are tasks of purchasing (in the narrow sense)
Tasks of procurement logistics are (in the narrow sense)
Different Procurement methods
Procurement processes exist in many different forms. The procedure and priorities (such as supplier evaluation, price negotiation, quality requirements, the actual supplying ( punctuality, quality ... ), legal issues, financing, etc. ) can be determined for example by the following criteria:
- Importance of goods: strategic / expensive ... insignificant
- Kind to be procured resources: material, rights, employees, services, software, ...
- Repetition of Procurement: Unique processes ( software procurement, is often processed in the form of a project) ... ongoing operations ( re-orders in the trade; processing through established processes)
- Process Standardization: Standardized (national / international standardized, corporate standards ) ... individual processing of procurement actions
- Software Application: Under SW support ( e-procurement ) ... edited manually or without special procurement software
The purchased goods themselves can - also affecting the procurement process - are distinguished according to the following criteria:
- After the scope of services provided, for example, capital goods (to and ): product business ( multiple manufacturing, offering for broad market ), Systemgeschaft ( complex bundle of services for an initial anonymous market ), investment business ( complex service bundles, i W. customized )
- Further processing of the procurement goods: unchanged paragraph (commercially ) ... modified finishing ( final assembly) ... Production aids (tools, raw material, by-products )
- Holding period of the procured goods: Direct run to paragraph (eg delivery to customers by the supplier) ... long residence time (raw materials, goods for own use )
Procurement = sales at wholesaler
The facts ' procurement ' is on the supplier side ' paragraph ', where the buyer occurs there in the role of ' Customer'. In the implementation of procurement actions therefore functional units interact with each other on both sides at the same time. In the trade -H model of Becker, the units involved therein are described almost structurally analogous ( for the example of trading companies ):
- Procurement: Purchasing → MRP → Goods Receipt → Invoice Verification → Accounts Payable
- Sales page: Marketing → Sales → Goods Issue → Billing → Accounts Receivable
While products usually come from a directly upstream procurement as in retail operations, possibly with intermediate storage, intermediate consumption in other industries, often in the production processes directly ( without specific procurement actions ) is used; Example: A bank uses price data of the stock market ( = the intermediate consumption) in a for the supply of information from customers ( = own performance / product) used portfolio management system. The procurement focus to the latter is, for example, on the (one-time and backward time took place ) negotiations and agreements for the use of such inputs YTD.
Operational procurement process
The procurement of an article is triggered by the MRP which a purchase requisition (SAP Abbreviation: Requisition ) triggers. In production, the disposition is a partial function of production planning and control. The order includes at least item, quantity and delivery date and location. The order is placed with a supplier who is already known as a rule, and with whom there is a general agreement. Some procurement process even stipulate that the supplier monitors the inventory online and unsolicited anliefert the missing goods when it falls below the order backlog. The procurement affects greatly to the cost and the liquidity of a company.
While procurement actions for operational purposes usually defined business processes are treated in the context, it may in cases of special importance, for example if they are strategically important to be practical, formal carry out procurement as a project. Reasons for this may be:
- [ ... Manufacturer ] plan the purchase in the phase of product development.
- Determine the procedure for procurement individually or in contrast to the procurement process (default), for example, the application of a specific process model, individual decision criteria clearly defined milestones etc.
- Certain of the parties involved with individually defined roles
- To define specific targets to budget and schedule - for example, a standard for reporting projects is expected.
Procurement is also processed through this process - but they are involved in a project approach.
The PMBOK Guide provides for such a procedure before six main processes:
In the procurement planning involves determining which services or materials are to be procured. This will often result from a comparison of the result types (definition of the content and scope ) and the internally available resources. Tasks are the lot of planning, scheduling, and price planning
In capacity planning, the terms of reference for the einzuholenden offers are made. In addition, the potential supplier must be identified. Furthermore, the criteria are defined according to which the suppliers should be assessed (eg price of goods or services, techn. Skills, good experience / reliability, financial stability of the company, availability, etc. )
Thereafter, the bids will be requested by the potential suppliers.
In the process of supplier selection, the defined selection criteria are applied ( or adapted again if no supplier is able to deliver in accordance with the terms of reference).
Contract management in this context means the continuous supervision / examination of the supplier. The aim is to ensure the correct and timely delivery of the ordered service. To draw from difficulties, the project manager escalated the supplier undertakings.
Termination of Contract
After completion of the Sub- supplier relationship is terminated properly. This could - depending on the project - for example, Be the payment of the final invoice, execution of a final conversation ( Lessons Learned ), agreements on the naming of the project as a reference project for the supplier, etc.
Procurement in Germany
The biggest buyer in Germany is the state: federal, state and local governments buy per year for around 250 billion euros of goods and services a. At the federal level there are two large procurement agencies: On the one hand, the Federal Office of Defense Technology and Procurement, with an annual volume of around 3.7 billion euro and the Procurement Office of the BMI with an annual volume of around 700 million euros. In the economic sphere, the German Bahn AG has an annual volume of around 20 billion euros of one of the most powerful buyers in Germany.