A speech is a deliberate usually in advance, oral communication, the one speaker to several people ( audience, speaking in public audience) is directed. In contrast to the reciter of the speaker submits own thoughts. When you talk further referred to manuscripts and printed copies of speeches. Short speeches to welcome a meeting or opening of an event are also called speech.
Types of speeches
From talk show releases to speeches by distinguished:
- Mono Logical Form: The listener does not interrupt the speaker by longer own releases, but at most by applause or disapproval. Between questions and interjections are in speeches permitted to debate, but not in speeches at a ceremony.
- Standard Language: Let's talk be placed and read often in writing. Experienced speaker pull the free lecture to the basis of notes. Even if speakers improvise ( speak " off the cuff " ), they are trying their words the level of written language to match.
- Prose: speakers do not speak in verse. Versreden to serene occasions such as wedding ceremonies and carnivals ( carnival speech ) are the exception.
- Thematic unity: speeches are distinguished in that they are always " down to business " are. Prolixity is poor style of speech and causes the audience reacts impatiently. A good speech is concise and as short as possible.
- Habitus and body language: talking, self -dinner speeches, are mostly standing, held in larger gatherings " front " from a lectern. The speaker raises his voice and looking for eye contact with the audience.
- Courtesy ceremony: At a speech heard on the part of the speaker polite form of address to the audience, asking for and thanks for attention on the part of the audience applause.
Every speech is " speech in the sense of linguistics ". The reverse is not true, as grammarians and linguists apply the concept of the speech at all that is written according to the rules of a language ( direct, indirect, narrated monologue ). In the German language has the word "speech" also these are long, yes even more importance, such as in phrases such as question and answer, to task, in which " speech " as much as " accountable " means.
Occasion and purpose
In contrast to the oral narrative, the recitation, to talk of emcees speeches are not or only marginally entertainment. Speakers represented one thing, or show up politically, socially, morally committed, want to make a difference through their words. Their speeches have a certain occasion and pursue one or more of the following purposes:
- Greeting: short, held to welcome the participants in a speech event of the host and / or a guest of honor
- Will proclamation, declaration of intent: government statements, throne speeches, speeches at demonstrations.
- Influence on decision ( persuasion ): election speeches, promotional presentations; Speeches in parliaments and other advisory bodies; Speeches at court hearings ( plea ).
- Influence conviction and willingness to act: philosophical- ideological discourses, missionary sermons; political propaganda speeches; Fire and diatribes ( diatribe ).
- Honors individuals and Services: pomp and eulogies of gods and rulers ( Panegyrikon ); Eulogies at award ceremonies ( eulogy ).
- Culture of Remembrance: Commemorative speeches on historical events, anniversary speeches, obituaries, funeral speeches.
- Ceremony: speeches serve - as the festivals themselves - the emphasis of life and time periods and strengthening the feeling of belonging ( identification). A Sunday speech referred to, however, a pejorative held on special occasions speech with great, but the reality was usually not retentive words. Wedding Speech
- Christmas and New Year message.
- Talking to the inauguration of buildings.
- Talking to initiation: School dismissal, Jugendweihe; Maiden speeches of members of parliament.
- Women's speech
The speech as an art form
Since ancient times, the orator, rhetorician among the Greeks, Orator enjoys among the Romans, high reputation. The speech developed in the political and judicial practice of both nations to art. Eloquence was considered learned and taught in special schools speaker. The practical knowledge of effective speech design was collected and steeped in theory. This resulted in a wide field of knowledge that rhetoric. She counted to the Middle Ages to the educational canon and is by no means obsolete today as the views of their systematics shows. The analysis and classification of figures of speech fertilized other areas of knowledge, as stylistics and poetics. The rhetoric is one of the historical roots of the literature.
The reputation enjoy a speaker or how important an event can be a prominent speaker, show the fees that are sometimes paid for a speech. Especially former presidents or other senior or popular government members received or receive large amounts of money per appearance, for example, Bill Clinton, Al Gore, Mikhail Gorbachev, Tony Blair ( he was awarded in November 2007 for a three-hour appearance in China of 230,000 pounds = 280 300 EUR ) and Helmut Schmidt.