As a push-pull trains ( Switzerland: commuter trains ) are called trains, in which the motor vehicle ( the locomotive or railcar ) must not be implemented when changing direction.
- Either it is located at both ends of the train, a train (also called sandwich ), and both can be controlled by the respective front drive vehicle from,
- Or it is at the end of the train, a train and the front end of a driving car, with the traction unit can be remotely controlled. The train is then pushed in one direction with the control car ahead.
With push-pull trains, the use of passenger trains can be made more efficient and faster because the engine can stay connected to the rear of the train when the train is in head or reversing stations changes the direction of travel.
For remote control with a control cars, the train must be equipped accordingly, also the same push-pull train or multiple unit control must be used.
Advantage of Wendezugs or commuter train over the train set is the ability to use normal cars as intermediate cars, if they are equipped with the necessary cables. Conversely, most of the intermediate cars can also be used as a normal car in conventional train sets.
Whereas in the past primarily commuter trains pull trains, so today are also trains long-distance transport widely used as push-pull trains, because of the omission of converting saves time at the turning points ( terminal stations, terminal stations, other stations with necessary change of direction). It can thus be achieved with fewer strokes a higher number of trips. The Provision of additional staff and Rangiergleises Furthermore deleted ( shunter ).
Commuter trains and the multiple control required for this purpose have a long tradition, especially in Switzerland.
The first control cars for commuter trains in Switzerland procured the Martigny- Châtelard -Bahn (MC, today TMR) 1906. SBB ordered in 1921 the first railcar Ce 4/6 with the intention of using them as a couple or with a control cars as commuter trains. After successful trials after delivery in 1923, baggage railcars Fe 4/4 were additionally taken with the identical Vielfachsteuerung into operation in 1927. Today in Switzerland, almost all passenger trains, commuter trains or trainsets.
In Germany special push-pull trains were probably first used in the Lübeck- Büchener Railway in May 1936 as city express trains with double-deck cars. The specially built for this train steam locomotives were steam locomotives with tender streamlining that could be remotely controlled from the other end of the train from the train drivers.
The electric locomotive E 04 23 1939 equipped for push-pull operation and tested until 1945 at the Munich suburban railways.
In the 1950s, the German Federal Railroad built several steam locomotives of Class 78 for turning trains for example, between Frankfurt and Wiesbaden. The engineer had access only to the brake directly. The commands for accelerating or maintaining the speed he gave to a specially trained heater on, the regulator and the control -operated (indirect shuttle train ).
Details on the history of the first push-pull trains in Germany see double -deck cars.