The four is a rowing boat for four athletes, the rowers. A distinction is made according to rowing manner and type of control: When four each rower has only one oar, the belt, the quadruple sculls, however, the two who Skulls. Is controlled either by a helmsman / controller wife, " with coxswain " or a rower / a rower: " without coxswain ."
When sculls operate all four athletes on each side a skull. This makes it much easier to steer than belt boats and is directed in official competitions a Fußsteuer. In children (under 14 years) and Junior -B region ( 15-/16-Jährige ) but it will still run with coxswain. Unlike belt boats the crew can easily maintain balance, which is why the quadruple scull is also very often used for beginner training. An advanced rowers sufficient to protect the boat from capsizing. The sculls without coxswain is the second fastest boat class after the eighth and one of the Olympic boat classes.
When four operate all four athletes only a belt. In traditional belt boats rowed the stroke on the port side, the other oar courts then took turns in the arrangement of the belt boom to starboard and portside from. Meanwhile, however geriggert on the individual skills of the Boating Party, and the "Italian Riggerung " ( "Twin " ), in which the rowers rowing on the middle seats on the same side, is possible thanks to modern materials in boat building and is often used. This arrangement, the typical belt boats yaw, thus curb the tendency of the boat, easy to break on every shot to a page.
As coxless four, and four named without, refers to a rowing boat, which is rowed by four oarsmen, but without coxswain. The boat is controlled by one of the rowers a built-in foot control, in speedboats, this usually takes the batsman. Since 1900, the four- part coxless the program of the Olympic Games; addition also the lightweight coxless four will be played at the Olympic Games since 1996, but for the four with coxswain was taken from the program.
Lightweight coxless four
The lightweight coxless four, four without even easier is also driven by four oarsmen, but the team average of the weight shall be no more than 70.0 kg. The lightweight four without being an Olympic boat class since 1996 for men. For women, this boat is no longer run at world championships since the mid-1990s.
Four with coxswain
The coxed four, also called quad with, refers to a rowing boat with four rowers and a helmsman.
The foursome with was from 1900 up to and including olympic 1992; He was taken from the program of the Olympic Games and replaced by the lightweight coxless four in 1996. Since 2009, the foursome with also is no longer in the World Championships program, so that it is only and rowed at the World Championships in the junior and U23 - area ( where there is no -one with coxswain ) at national regattas and championships.
A boat with coxswain, the boat is controlled by a control man with a tax at the rear, which is moved via cables. The tax man sitting in the stern of the boat, in modern racing boats it is due to better weight distribution always in the front. An exception is the handicap area where the direct contact with the team is given preference.
If the boat does not have a coxswain, a rower acts as a boatman, he is responsible for the course of the boat. He must turn around in order to observe the direction of travel of the boat can, because rowers sit facing rearwards in the boat. The foot control consists of a small rudder at the stern of the boat, with the boat is controlled by ropes. One of the rowers manipulates the control using a special, moving his foot part Stemmbretts where the rowers repel each other at every stroke. In racing generally controls the batsman in the stern the boat, where he controls the heading with the direction in which swings the tail tip.
That this is not quite so simple, can be repeatedly observed at the end of a race with boats without coxswain. In the final sprint to lose the impact of people, due to the exhaustion, back and regain control of their boat and drive out of its path. Therefore, the "Italian Riggerung " in four without very useful as the boat keeps better track and not as strong a tendency to yaw.