﻿ Quantitative research

# Quantitative research

The quantitative methods in empirical social research include all procedures for the numerical representation of empirical facts, but also to support the conclusions drawn from the empirical findings with means of inferential statistics. Quantitative methods relate inter alia to sample selection, data collection and analysis.

Often come in election analyzes and in the market and opinion research in addition to quantitative methods and qualitative methods are used, such as semi-structured interviews.

Quantitative methods are seen in the social sciences as opposed to the qualitative methods frequently. However, this need not necessarily be the case, since it is quite possible to use both types of methods in combination.

## Outline of quantitative social research

Possible distinctions between the different areas of quantitative methods

• Methods of data collection: interview, questionnaire, observation, experiment, content analysis
• Survey form ( research design ): experiment, quasi- experiment, ex-post facto design
• Descriptive statistics (ie, descriptive statistics, such as median, variance)
• Inferential statistics (on the probability of the arrival of established empirical findings based method, stochastics, significance tests such as Chi -square test; selection of samples)
• Multivariate statistics (eg, factor analysis, cluster analysis )
• The social science network analysis

Depending on the number of independent variables considered, a distinction is a multifactorial and investigations, and as a function of the number of univariate variables and dependent multivariate methods (such as factor analysis and cluster analysis).

## Qualitative and quantitative social research

Frequently quantitative social research is seen in the social sciences as opposed to qualitative social research. The important thing is always one's own cognitive interest, which determines the choice of methods. Qualitative methods are often used when the object of research is new or to explore around the area of ​​research and develop hypotheses. Quantitative methods can both generate hypotheses as well as examine previously established hypotheses.

In the quantitative traversed Social Research countable properties are measured. The most common methods of data collection in the social sciences are the survey, observation, experiment and analyzing the content. But they are quite different measuring methods applicable, such as the lost- letter technique that problems such as reactivity can be prevented.

## For example, surveys by standardized interviews

For interviews in representative surveys respondents are usually selected in a random sample. Aside from writing or online interviews conducted various issues are usually read aloud by the interviewer. This can be "face to face " happen ( PAPI, CAPI) or by telephone ( CATI) Each respondent gets the same questions in the rule ( exceptions: specifying certain filter guides or questionnaire splits). . For these questions, there is generally predefined response categories that have been provided above in the questionnaire design with a ( numeric ) code scheme. exist only predefined response categories, it is called a closed question. additionally exists the possibility that respondents in turn formulated, not in advance to give certain answers, it is called semi-open questions. If there are no predetermined response categories, one speaks of open questions These are rare in quantitative interviews, but are also used. (Example: What profession they practice? ) the open-ended responses are in general according to the survey of data preparation in certain categories (. codes) arranged so that they can be more easily applied to a statistical analysis.