Quran reading

The term refers to different forms of the Quran recitation Quran lecture, which, being of particular importance in the Islamic faith practice due to the designed to Orality design of the Scripture, which is already in the basic meaning of the word Koran. General for any form of Quran reading the terms تلاوة / Tilawa and قراءة / Qira a ʾ are commonly used in Arabic; with the latter, however, especially the readings of the Koran are called.

The doctrine of the ritual, careful recitation of the Quran as an important sub-discipline of sciences of the Qur'an is called Tajweed (Arabic تجويد, DMG taǧwīd, embellishment ') respectively. It is concerned about the standardization of the pronunciation, the to be observed in the lecture recitation speed, the correct setting of breaks and with the external environment that have the worship presentation of the Koran to apply ( ترتيل / Tartīl ).

Importance of the Quran recitation in Islam

The Koran is very clear rather than designed in its textual design on the oral, public lecture on silent reading. Externally visible which is already on the literal meaning of the word, the Quran ' itself: al- qur ʾ ān says " the reading, recitation ", the " presentation". Strictly speaking, it is in the word Quran Recitation by a pleonasm. The qur ʾ ān meaning of the word within the Koran itself, however, is erratic and characterized by a semantic change; at the latest in mid Meccan verses with the word qur ʾ ān but performing the recited revelation Scripture meant. According to Sura 72 begins with the words:

" Behold, we have qur ʾ ān a wonderful part that leads to the right path, and we now believe in him. "

Essential to the importance that is attributed to the Quran recitation is also the dogma of the " inimitability of the Qur'an " (Arabic إعجاز القرآن, DMG i ʿ ǧāz al - qur ʾ ān ), which lends itself to wonder character of Scripture and underpins the prophetic claim of Muhammad. The Sira and Hadith literature highlights the importance of the Qur'an lecture and its aesthetic quality by numerous episodes of the life of the Prophet and his companions out on. So the prophet companion Ibn Mas ʿ had ūd Surah ar - Rahmaan recited, in order to defy his adversaries. Although he was therefore attacked and seriously injured, he assured that " God never able to tolerate enemies" were as at that moment.

The later caliph ʿ Umar said to have been the first bitter enemy of the Muslims mainly convinces by the beauty of the Qur'an Tā -ha of the truthfulness of the Islamic message. In another hadith, the Quran recitation in addition to the fulfillment of the Qur'anic obligations to an essential element of the Islamic faith:

" The parable of a believer who recites the Qur'an and acts on them is a citrus plant that tastes good and smells. And the parable of a believer who does not recite the Qur'an but acts according to him, is a date which tastes good but does not smell. And the parable of the hypocrite who recites the Qur'an is that of basil that smells good but is bitter. And the parable of the hypocrite who does not recite the Quran, which is a colocynth which tastes bitter and has no smell. "

In the course of the editorial process of revelation text the importance of the written Qur'an took ( مصحف / Mushaf ) over the spoken word, reciting Qur'an constantly increasing, as is clear from the worship of the physical document itself as a sort of fetish and the increasingly prominent position the calligraphic art shows. Especially since the 20th century but also stresses parallel to once again reinforced the orality of the Koran, by conservative scholars like Labib Sa ʿ īd as well as by reform-minded scholars such as Nasr Hamid Abu Qur'an Zaid.

Normalization of the Quran recitation in the context of Tajweed

The careful recitation of the Holy Scriptures is considered Quranic commandment; as it says in Sura 73:4: ورتل ٱلقرءان ترتيلا /, And wear the Koran underscored ( tartīlan ) before ' On the question of his contemporaries, how exactly the verse is understood to ʿ Alī ibn Abī Taalib, the, replied the Prophet's cousin and son-in:

The Art of Quran Recitation

The art of Quran recitation ' (Arabic: علم ​​التجويد, DMG ʿ ilm at- taǧwīd ) has been developed later than the ninth century as a sub-discipline of science of the Koranlesarten (DMG ʿ ilm al - ʾ Qira AT Arabic علم القراءات, ). The quality of a recitation is measured accordingly in addition to the articulation and the speech rate mainly due to the phonetically and semantically correct setting of breaks according to syntax and meaning units. Modern copies of the Koran, which are specially printed for the purpose of artful recitation, therefore, often contain color markings to text locations where breaks can be set or need.

It is also essential the classification of Arabic phonemes according to place of articulation and manner of articulation. Especially on the correct pronunciation of emphatic sounds great emphasis. The letters of the alphabet are classified in dual systems of open and closed sounds and whether they are spoken with a raised or lowered tongue. Neuzeitliche manuals often contain illustrations of the anatomy of the mouth and throat, which are intended to exactly where the letter should be articulated. An example of further regulation specifications for correct pronunciation is the slurring of now before Bā ʾ to MIM, which is often displayed in modern pleading by a superscript م.

In addition to these technical instructions, the voice instructions for Quran recitation usually also include before and during the lecture a section on the آداب التلاوة / Adab at- Tilawa, the correct behavior. Significant here is mainly the right intention and ritual purity during the reading and orientation of the body after the Qibla. It is possible to recite the Qur'an as a whole in one evening, but it is - also because of a prophetic tradition that says that those who lecture the Qur'an in less than three days, did not understand him - often for liturgical purposes, a classification made and Hizb- sections - by Juz ʾ.

Training of Koranrezitatoren

The training of Koranrezitatoren usually begins in childhood. A learned and teaching in the Quran recitation expert is called Muqri ʾ someone who has mastered the presentation by the rules, is called Qari ʾ. Haafiz is the honorific for people who have learned the entire Qur'an by heart. The presentation of the Koran serves primarily as income for people who have difficulties because of a disability, otherwise to earn their livelihood. For example, was the blind in infancy Taha Hussein sent by his father to the local Islamic school to be trained there for reciter.

The musical dimension of Quran recitation

It has been frequently pointed out the musicality of the Koran lecture. Amnon Shiloah highlighted the proximity of Quran recitation and music in that he held the melodic qualities of the presentation of some Quranic verses in musical notation; such as the Sura 20:1-3:

The relationship between music and the Quran recitation is but tense. This is mainly due to the ambivalent attitude of the traditional Islamic scholarship to the music as such together (see → Islamic music). While the Quran in the early Islamic period apparently still to traditional tunes ( ألحان / ALHAN ) was sung, represented the Islamic scholarship soon the view that the Quran recitation had clearly separate from the sing-song of the camel herders.

It also plays the suggestion to withdraw the sanctity of the reading of Scripture from the profanity of a concert, as was also comparable as regard to the cantillation, the musical performance of the Tanakh in Jewish worship expressed, a significant role. The recitation is different from the music so much by its design than by the significance and importance of the presented text.

For the situation in Egypt, which can be considered representative of other Arab states, Kristina Nelson notes that, although a certain degree of neutrality have prevailed in the attitude towards the music, an association of music and Koran reading would, however, be avoided if possible. In contrast, Anne Rasmussen observed in Indonesia, the country with the largest Muslim population in the world that a smooth transition between recitation, song and music is not the exception but the rule.