Railway divisions in Germany
As a railway Directorate (ED ), Railway Board (BD ) or Reichsbahndirektion (RBD / Rbd ) is in Germany and Austria called the operating line carrying a railway line or a region of a larger railway company. Your organization is determined by the respective railway company or the state railway. In the German area they were intermediate authorities or regional entities in the hierarchy of state railway administrations. With the founding of the Deutsche Bahn AG in 1994, the system of the German railway offices were abolished and their former duties new " business units" transferred.
- 2.1 Former Austria - Hungary
- 2.2 Connected Austria
- 2.3 Austria
- 3.1 German Eastern Railway
Regional railways railway directorates
Position in the government hierarchy
The first railway directorates of the German state railways were under a sectoral ministry in general. This was in Prussia, for example, the " Ministry of Commerce, Trade and Public Works ," from 1878, which separated " Ministry of Public Works ." In Bavaria, the railway operating directorates were under the " Ministry of State for Transport ." In contrast, were under the Royal Saxon State Railways the Saxon Ministry of Finance.
In Bavaria were the five "railway operating Directorates " until 1886, the " General Directorate of Traffic royal institutions ," then " General of the Royal Bavarian State Railways " and the " Ministry of State for Transport " assumes from 1906.
As a small country with only a central control station Baden was given. There was only from 1882 a railway management in Karlsruhe. Previously, the state railway was the interior ministry, associated with the operation, however, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Meanwhile, the Chief Directorate of the water and road construction, and then the Chief Directorate of the posts and railways were responsible for state railways.
In an advanced stage of organization railway directorates of the state leadership were usually subjected to in terms of finances. This was particularly the tariff structure ( default tariffs, special tariffs for certain areas ), the withholding or delivery obtained financial income as well as the allocation of additional funds for deficit compensations or for special construction of railways (railway stations, new tracks, electrification).
In this context given the directorates organized the operation for the assigned routes. Internally, this often departments with the assignments " Finance and Human Resources ", " Timetable, fares, operations " and " construction, entertainment and vehicles " set up.
A railway department was also able to more her assigned operating offices, main workshops or depots at various locations have each been assigned specific routes. It could happen that in a major city or a railway junction multiple operating offices were represented by different railway directorates next to each other, especially in the capital Berlin.
So there Meyers Lexicon of the date 1885, a division of "royally. Directorates of the State Railways in Berlin " in eleven partially external " operating agencies "for the designated routes to:
- Three in Berlin: Berlin- Dresden,
- Berlin- Sommerfeld
- City and circle line,
- Wroclaw Halbstadt,
- Wroclaw -Sommerfeld,
- Berlin -Stettin,
- Szczecin - Stralsund,
After the restructuring from April 1, 1895 had the Directorate Berlin
- Nine operating inspections,
- Three machine inspections
- A telegraph inspection,
- Four Verkehrsinpektionen and
- Thirteen workshops inspections.
Headcount sat next to the President of 15 members of the Executive Board, ten laborers, one account manager, an accounting officer and 580 office employees.
In Prussia, the administrations of the larger state railways were transformed into independent directorates, as the "Royal Railway Directorates ", or " KED " and later as " railway directorates " ( "ED ") of the Prussian state railways were called. With its extensive rail network there were most of the German railway directorates and deeply differentiated structures. The railway directorates were subject directly to the Ministry of Commerce, Trade and Public Works, from 1878 to the separated therefrom Ministry of Public Works. This well as rail responsibility for canals and for Chausseebauten was transferred, it was thus a kind of Ministry of Transport.
As of 1907 had the Prussian state railways after the administrative reform of 1895 and the union with the Hessian State Railways in 1897 following directorates:
The with the restructuring from 1895 made in Prussia classification was essentially taken from the following Deutsche Reichsbahn -Gesellschaft, the German Federal Railways and Deutsche Reichsbahn.
The Bavarian regional state administrations of the Royal Bavarian State Railways were first referred to as railway offices and top web agencies, the latter were in Augsburg, Bamberg, Ingolstadt, Kempten, Munich, Nuremberg, Regensburg, Rosenheim, Weiden and Würzburg. They were until 1886 the " Directorate General of the Royal traffic stations " and then subordinate to 1906 the " Directorate General of the Royal Bavarian State Railways". From 1906, the "railway operating directorates " have been created, the " Ministry of State for Transport " under stood. They included the Directorates Augsburg, Ludwigshafen / Rhein, Munich, Nuremberg, Bamberg, Regensburg and Würzburg, which were taken up in Bamberg ( assigned to Nuremberg) to 1920 by the Reichsbahn.
In Saxony there were initially a number of separate organizational " State Railways". Locations of directorates were Dresden and Leipzig, briefly apparently Chemnitz.
In Dresden was on August 1, 1848, the "Royal Direction of the Saxon-Bohemian State Railway " was founded, it was a little later to the " Royal Direction of the Saxon-Bohemian and Saxon- Silesian State Railways", from December 14, 1852 for " Royal State Railways -Direction " October 1, 1853, the " Royal Directorate of Eastern State railways " and finally from July 1, 1869 together with the Leipzig Directorate for " Royal General Direction of the Saxon State railways ".
In Leipzig on April 1, 1847, the "Royal Direction of the Saxon- Bavarian Railway " was founded, which the " Royal Directorate of the Western State Railway " was from 1 October 1853. It was disbanded on 1 July 1869, together with Dresden.
Other regional railways
According to Meyers Lexicon of 1888
- Baden: " Directorate General of the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railways " in Karlsruhe.
- Alsace- Lorraine: " Imperial General Directorate of Railways in Alsace -Lorraine " at Strasbourg, for the railways in Alsace- Lorraine and the Wilhelm- Luxembourg railway.
- Hesse: " Directorate of the Main-Neckar Railway" in Darmstadt
- " Grand-Ducal Board of the Upper Hessian State Railway " in Gießen.
The German Reichsbahn was founded in 1920 as the successor of all German state railways, adopted in substance the first directors of the German state railways; this acted as intermediate authorities in the Reichsbahn structure. Individual smaller directorates in the 1930s associated with larger directorates or divided into several directorates.
The Reichsbahn divisions (RBD or Rbd ) subject to the operation and traffic management as well as all technical tasks. You were operating departments such as offices, tourist offices, machine offices, land surveying offices, maintenance workshops and also subordinated to new offices as needed.
Excluding all tasks were the Ministry of Transport, the Reichsbahn Baudirektionen, the Reichsbahn central offices, the upper operating line ( later General management ) and the " Executive Directorates " were reserved. Thus, certain transactions were carried out by the " Managing directorates " and could not be carried out by the Reichsbahn divisions. The " Executive Directorates of the workshops being" initiated and supervised the activities of all workshops in the maintenance workshops of their group who counted as district offices, while the remaining local Reichsbahn divisions had nothing to do with the administration of the workshops.
Every railway administration was divided generally into five departments, which corresponded to the railway departments of the Reich Ministry of Transport.
The German Reichsbahn decreed in 1927 over 24 Reichsbahn divisions to which later the six directorates of the " Bavarian Group Administration " and 1939, the two directorates in the " Greater German " Room were added:
- Reichsbahndirektion Altona (later Hamburg)
- Reichsbahn Berlin
- Reichsbahndirektion Wroclaw
- Reichsbahndirektion Dresden
- Reichsbahndirektion Elberfeld ( Wuppertal later )
- Reichsbahndirektion Erfurt
- Reichsbahndirektion Essen / Ruhr
- Reichsbahndirektion Frankfurt / Main
- Reichsbahndirektion Halle ( Saale)
- Reichsbahndirektion Hannover
- Reichsbahndirektion Karlsruhe
- Reichsbahndirektion Kassel
- Reichsbahndirektion Cologne
- Reichsbahndirektion Königsberg (Pr. )
- Reichsbahndirektion Magdeburg ( dissolved on 1 October 1931 at Rbd-Halle/Saale, Berlin, Altona - and -Hannover )
- Reichsbahndirektion Mainz
- Reichsbahndirektion Münster (Westphalia )
- Reichsbahndirektion Oldenburg (repealed on 1 January 1935 to Rbd -Münster and Hannover)
- Reichsbahndirektion Opole
- Reichsbahndirektion East ( Frankfurt / Oder)
- Reichsbahndirektion Schwerin
- Reichsbahndirektion Szczecin
- Reichsbahndirektion Stuttgart
- Reichsbahndirektion Trier ( from 1935 Rbd Saarbrücken)
(Repealed in late 1933 ) The railway administration of the Bavarian Group Administration:
- Reichsbahndirektion Augsburg
- Reichsbahndirektion Ludwigshafen / Rhein ( abolished on 1 April 1937 went to Rbd Rbd - Mainz -Saarbrücken )
- Reichsbahndirektion Munich
- Reichsbahndirektion Nuremberg
- Reichsbahndirektion Regensburg
- Reichsbahndirektion Würzburg (repealed on 1 January 1931 to Rbd -Nuremberg )
After the incorporation of the former German Reich and Polish territories into the German Empire in 1939, two new Reichsbahn divisions have been established:
- Reichsbahndirektion Danzig for Danzig- West Prussia
- Reichsbahndirektion poses for Reichsgau Wartheland
The railway lines of the Sudetenland were assigned to the adjacent railway directorates Wroclaw, Opole, Dresden and Regensburg.
German Reichsbahn ( after 1945 )
The German Reichsbahn taught in addition to those inherited from the predecessor organization on their territory directorates four more, which took over the responsibility instead of the directorates in the former eastern territories of Germany and the Federal Republic of Germany, where the letters have been preserved. The German Reichsbahn introduced the term " railway administration " until it merged with Deutsche Bahn AG in 1994 on.
Every railway administration was headed by a president who was subordinate to the Ministry of Transport. The Reichsbahn were subordinate to a railroad office, local offices of the main branches of the service equipment industry, car industry, railways, security and telecommunications and services with special tasks of the district. The Reichsbahn was arranged according to the main service branches in administrations, each headed by a managing director, and in functional departments ( eg planning, management and training, general ledger accounting and statistics). The demarcation of the Reichsbahn divisions each other into account the route network and the territorial structure of the GDR.
List of directors of the Deutsche Reichsbahn
- Reichsbahn Berlin
- Reichsbahndirektion Cottbus
- Reichsbahndirektion Dresden
- Reichsbahndirektion Erfurt
- Reichsbahndirektion Greifswald
- Reichsbahndirektion Hall
- Reichsbahndirektion Magdeburg
- Reichsbahndirektion Pasewalk ( from 21 July to 10 October 1945 as a replacement for Stettin, was moved to Greifswald)
- Reichsbahndirektion Schwerin
- Reichsbahndirektion Wittenberg ( from August 15 to September 30, 1945 as a replacement for the DR portion of the RBD Hamburg)
German Federal Railroad
With the founding of the German Federal Railroad former " Reichsbahn divisions " were designated as Federal Railway Directorates. Their services resulted mainly from the former Reichsbahn divisions excluding located on the territory of the German Democratic Republic and the former eastern territories directorates.
According to the Federal Railway Act, the Railway Directorates were the twenty -member Board of Directors of Federal Railroad assumed, whose members were determined by the federal government. According to the Federal Railway Act, the Board decided on the President of the Railway Directorates [ ... ] in consultation with the Executive Board, as well as the establishment, transfer, cancellation or significant organizational change in a railway management or central office of the German Federal Railways and a significant change in their districts. By law, organizational changes had to be made also in agreement with the "local participating supreme state transport authorities ." However, the Federal Minister for Transport remained ultimately approving reserved.
Federal Railway Directorates
The German Federal Railroad was in the state in 1993 divided into the following directorates ( in brackets are the letters of the management and indicators of operational services, the construction and mechanical engineering departments had increased by 50 Code):
- Bundesbahndirektion Food [E ]
- Bundesbahndirektion Frankfurt [ F]
- Bundesbahndirektion Hamburg in Hamburg- Altona [ A]
- Railway Board Hannover [H ]
- Bundesbahndirektion Karlsruhe [R ]
- Bundesbahndirektion Cologne [ K]
- Bundesbahndirektion Munich [ M]
- Bundesbahndirektion Nuremberg [ N]
- Bundesbahndirektion Saarbrücken [ S]
- Bundesbahndirektion Stuttgart [T ]
Until that time, the following directorates were dissolved and were assigned to the remaining districts Directorate:
- Bundesbahndirektion Augsburg ( dissolved on June 1, 1971 to BD Munich)
- Bundesbahndirektion Kassel ( dissolved on 31 December 1974 at Frankfurt BD )
- Bundesbahndirektion Mainz ( dissolved on 30 April 1972 at BTurn Saarbrücken, Karlsruhe, Frankfurt and Cologne)
- Bundesbahndirektion Münster / Westphalia. ( dissolved on 31 December 1974 at BTurn Food and Hanover )
- Bundesbahndirektion Regensburg ( dissolved on June 1, 1976 at BTurn Munich and Nuremberg )
- Bundesbahndirektion Trier
- Bundesbahndirektion Wuppertal in Wuppertal- Elberfeld ( dissolved on 31 December 1974 at BTurn Cologne and Essen )
Addition, there were departments such as the Federal Railroad central offices in Munich and Minden (Westphalia ) and other central agencies whose territory ranged over several directorates.
At the directorates were libraries in the late 1960s were comprised of 10,000 to 40,000 volumes.
With the founding of the Deutsche Bahn AG 1994, directorates were abolished and its functions transferred to the new business areas.
Subsequently, all former German railway directorates are listed with their membership in different time periods in a common tables. For some of the railway directorates this table earlier establishment data are cited in the literature, this then affect mostly the directorates of the former private railways.
Regional railways shortcuts
- Bad = Grand Ducal Baden State Railways
- Bay = Royal Bavarian State Railways
- Bra = Duchy of Brunswick State Railway ( from 1870 part of the Prussian state railways )
- DH = Danish Holsteinisch ( King Christian VIII Baltic railway )
- GOE = Grand Duchy of Oldenburg State Railways ( GOE, 1867-1920 )
- Hann = Royal Hanoverian State Railways ( since 1866 part of the Prussian state railways )
- Kurh = Bebra - Hanau Railway ( Kurhessische State Railways ) ( since 1866 part of the Prussian state railways )
- MFF = Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg Friedrich- Franz Railway
- Nas = Nassau State Railway ( from 1866 part of the Prussian state railways )
- Pr = Prussian State Railways
- Sowing. = Royal Saxon State Railways
- Wü = Royal Württemberg State Railways
- DB = German Federal Railroad
- DR = German Reichsbahn
- DRG = German State Railroad Company
Former Austria - Hungary
The organization was based in Austria as First on a Regulation of 26 February 1882. According stood under the KK Department of Commerce a K. K. Direction of State railway operator in Vienna ( Wien- five house, Schönbrunnerstraße 2) [note 1], which was added to a State railway Rath. Among k.k. acted Upper rail operations offices, which was assigned within a given district, the monitoring of operational service, in construction, railway maintenance and Zugbeförderung (locations: Vienna, Linz, Salzburg, Steyr, Villach, Innsbruck and Spalato ).
In Hungary, the central administration was in the hands of a Directorate in Pest with a director at the top, which stood for the individual service branches Subdirektoren aside. The latter practiced within their sphere of management with a certain independence, and acted in the Direktionsrat same time as speakers. The operation service, the construction, railway maintenance and Zugbeförderung for defined service districts of 150-600 km were perceived by business and traffic lines (corresponding to the railway operating offices in Prussia).
With a Regulation of 23 June 1884, the Minister for Trade imputed kk was Created the General Direction of the Austrian State Railways in Vienna (Vienna -Innere Stadt, Hegelgasse 7) for the management of the local operating service on the traffic needs to be formed kk Were railway operating Directionen added (locations: Vienna, Linz, Innsbruck, Villach, Budweis, Pilsen, Prague, Krakow, Lviv, and Pola Spalato ). The 1882 appointed State Railroad Rath served ( with 50 members ), now the Minister of Commerce in the assessment of economic issues in the field of railway transport.
After the annexation of Austria to the German Reich in 1938 the BBÖ Reichsbahn divisions were set up in the field:
- Reichsbahndirektion Linz
- Reichsbahndirektion Villach
- Reichsbahndirektion Vienna
- Railway management Innsbruck, later " Railway Board "
- Railway management Linz, later " Railway Board "
- Railway management Villach, later " Railway Board "
- Railway Directorate Vienna / from August 1945 " General of the Austrian State Railways" ( ÖStB ), later " -General of the Austrian Federal Railways ' ( ÖBB) and Railway Board
German Eastern Railway
After the occupation of Poland, the German Reichsbahn (DRB) placed the railway lines in the General Government on November 1, 1939, the Directorate-General for the Eastern Railroad ( " Gedob " ), based in Krakow. The majority of the staff of the German Eastern Railway came from Germany, only in the lower ranks were Polish nationals are employed. President of the Gedob was from April 1, 1940 Adolf Gerteis. The rolling stock of the Eastern Railway came from the former Polish State Railways (PKP ).