Acker - radish ( Raphanus raphanistrum ), also known as wild radish or wild radish, is a plant belonging to the family of cruciferous plants (Brassicaceae ). Despite its name, it does not form a thickened root and is not an ancestor of the garden radish, but only related to him.
- 5.1 Literature
- 5.2 Notes and references
It is an annual herbaceous plant that reaches the plant height between 30 cm and 60 cm and usually erect, sometimes ascending grows. The roots are not, as is the case with other types of radish, thickened fleshy. The leaves are oval in outline to ovoid but lyre-shaped pinnatisect, the end portion being significantly larger than the side portions. The lower leaves, especially the basal leaves are stalked, however, the upper leaves rather sitting and undivided.
The flowers are in leafless terminal inflorescences. The petals are bright yellow or ( in southern Central Europe predominantly ) white with purple veins. As members of fruits pods are made with deep constrictions between the seeds.
The field - wild radish is sommerannuell and roots to 1 m deep.
The flowers are " nectar leading disk flowers ". The petals are purple veins have in the juice bar times and a high UV reflection. Hoverflies clearly prefer the forms with yellow flowers. The upright chalice covers the sugar-rich (55%) nectar. The type is a bee pasture and self-sterile.
The fruits are divided into single-seeded, nut -like fruit part. There is self propagation and spread of people and a random dispersal by small birds and cattle.
The seeds are long-lived ( 20-30 years) and oil- rich (40-45 %).
Fruit ripening extends from August to October.
The field - wild radish is originally distributed in the Mediterranean, but was deported world. In Central Europe it is a cultural companion since Neolithic times ( archaeophyte ).
The arable weed wild radish frequently in corridors of the fields and especially the grain fields, also at dumps. It prefers lime-free soils and indicates soil acidification. He is also sown as green manure.
Ecological indicator values
Indicator values according to Ellenberg for arable - radish: L6 penumbral to the half-light plant T5 heat default pointer K3 oceanic to sub-oceanic F5 Fresh pointer R4 Moderately acid to acid pointer N6 nitrogen-rich to moderate nitrogen-rich sites indicating S0 not salt ertragend
Leb Therophyt summer green, Soz Aperetalia
From the seeds of mustard may be made. The seed oil can be used for food and industrial purposes.
In one study, it was found that the leaves of the field - radish ( which are part of traditional, local Mediterranean diets ) both a potentially anti- diabetes, as well as a mood-lifting effect ( serotonin reuptake inhibitor) have.