The place is located about 20 km east of the provincial capital of Siena and 60 km south-east of the regional capital Florence in the countryside of the Crete Senesi. The site extends over 83 km ² and is located in the climatic classification of Italian communities in the zone D, 1914 GG. Through the municipal area of the Ombrone ( 4 of 157 km) flows and the Torrente Foenna (7 of 37 km).
Among the districts ( Frazioni ) include Armaiolo (281 m, about 80 inhabitants), Modanella, Poggio Santa Cecilia, San Gimignanello and Serre di Rapolano.
The history of the town center of Rapolano begins in the 12th century, when the Count Scialenga (also Cacciaconti and Cacciaguerra called ) from Asciano e Berardenga domination took over the place. First mentioned in writing in 1107, the town was in a document adduced by the family of Cacciaconti as local lords. They asked 1175 Siena to protection. 1208 took Gualfredotto di Milano the location on behalf of Florence. Rapolano was again attacked in 1233 and 1253 by Florence and fell several times in the conflict of Guelphs and Ghibellines. From 1266 there was a dependent of Siena Podestà. At this time the place was the granary of Siena. The grain deliveries were then organized by the management of the Hospital of Santa Maria della Scala in Siena and lasted until the 18th century. The city walls were partially destroyed in the conflict with Arezzo in 1306 from Siena and in 1342 rebuilt with the help Senese as fastening with five round towers. On May 30, 1554 first and then Armaiolo Rapolano was occupied and destroyed by the troops of Florence. The damages were only two city gates, the Porta dei Tintori and the Porta Sant'Antonio and six towers intact. Then the troops from Florence went on to defeat Siena on August 2, 1554 at the Battle of Scannagallo. With the defeat of Siena Rapolano also was incorporated into the Duchy of Tuscany and remained there ( with the exception of the Napoleonic occupation ) even after the unification of Italy. Since 1949, the place may carry the additional terms ( thermal baths ).
- Arcipretura di Santa Maria Assunta church in the village, which in 1646 received the consecration of the church. Contains the works of Madonna del Latte by Paolo di Giovanni Fei and San Giacomo, San Sebastiano and San Rocco adorano che la Madonna col Bambino by Astolfo Petrazzi. The work Madonna che il Bambino porge a Santa Francesca Romana is attributed to the Deifebo Burbarini.
- Chiesa del Corpus Domini, also called Chiesa della Fraternita church in the center of Piazza Matteotti. If the Girolamo di Benvenuto attributed to the work of Madonna with Child ei Santi Giovanni Battista e Girolamo and the work of Madonna del Rosario and Saints by Ventura Salimbeni.
- Chiesa di San Bartolomeo (also Chiesa del Santo called ), the church in the town center near the Vastellare that originated in the 14th century. Contains Vincenzo Rustici the work Madonna with Child, San Bartolomeo and San Cristoforo.
- Compagnia di Santa Caterina della Misericordia church, contains the works of Santa Caterina che riceve il cuore del Redentore and Santa Caterina che dà la veste al povero of Astolfo Petrazzi and Madonna in gloria ei Santi Caterina, Rocco and Sebastiano and San Lorenzo and San 'Andrea Alessandro Casolani.
- Chiesa della Madonna della Piaggia a San Gimignanello in the district of San Gimignanello, 1407 resulting church, contains the work of Madonna with Child by Lippo Vanni.
- Pieve di San Vittore, 1029 already mentioned Pieve just outside the city walls and the Porte dei Tintori.
- Porta dei Tintori ( Färbertor ), southern gate to the ( medieval ) to Siena, founded in the 14th century.
- Porta Nuova gate recent as the gateway to Piazza Matteotti. Was built to facilitate car access to the center.
- Terme Antica Querciolaia, about 1 km north-east location spas, having hot water 39-40 ° C and were probably used by the Romans. Was formerly also known under the name of Bagni Arrigucci.
- Parco Acqua, 1998 eröffneter nature park just outside the city walls near the ancient thermal baths. Contains sculptures by Mauro Berrettini.
- Terme di San Giovanni Battista, about 2 km south west spas. Once they were known under the name of Bagni Marii already used in the 3rd century BC and were expanded in the 13th century by the Senese government. The water temperature is 39 ° C. The ancient sources arose near the Kalkrestablagerungen now known as Montagnola, also called Acqua delle Rupe. Other sources in the immediate vicinity are the Santa Maria delle Nevi (28 ° C) and Casino Torricelli ( 23.6 ° C).
- Campo Muri, Etruscan - Roman thermal baths from the 3rd century BC, which were rediscovered in the 1970s and are close to the Terme San Giovanni. The site covers approximately 8000 &nbs; pm2.
- Serre di Rapolano: cassero ( Castello), Chiesa dei Santi Lorenzo e Andrea, Grancia, Palazzo Gori Martini among others
- Castello di Armaiolo, castle of unknown date. Belonged in 1121 to Count Spadalonga and Adilasia and was taken over in 1208 from Siena. 1554 was severely damaged in the conflict between Florence and Siena.
- Chiesa di San Giovanni Evangelista, church from the 14th century in the village of Armaiolo. Was restored at the end of the 19th century.
- Castello di San Gemignanello, first mentioned in 1022 as Castelvecchio castle, which was owned by the families Scialenghi and then the Gallerani. War since 1740 owned by the Sansedoni from Siena and was renovated in the 19th century.
- Chiesa dei Santi Fabiano e Sebastiano a San Gimignanello, church in castle, which was built in 1771 by the Sansedoni over an older church from the 12th.
- Castello di Modanella, fort at 360 m, which was extended in the 16th century.
- Chiesa di San Giovanni Evangelista a Modanella, Church in Modanella. The work Cena in Emmaus is the Raffaello Vanni attributed.
- Chiesa di Santa Maria a Montecamerini, church from the 11th century, just outside the village. Was restored in the 15th century and is now privately owned.
- Chiesa di San Biagio, in the 11th century mentioned as a branch of the church of San Vittore church, which is no longer used today. Located between Armaiolo and Lati Castelli.
- Chiesa di San Pietro a Poggio Santa Cecilia, in 1798 as a successor parish church of Santa Maria in Ferrata.
- Compagnia di Santa Croce, former church in the hamlet of Poggio Santa Cecilia, which contains a the Alessandro Casolani attributed works ( Sant Elena e il miracolo di San Macario ).
- Chiesa della Madonna di Mont car, built in 1676 near the old church Pieveruine in LocalitÃ Santo Stefano a Vicododuecim.
- Pieve di Sant'Andreino, already in 1178 by Pope Alexander III. a branch of the Collegiate di Sant'Agata in Asciano mentioned Pieve.
- The connection point Rapolano is located on the highway from Siena to the A1 and RA6 to Perugia. The hamlet of Serre di Rapolano has an additional connection point.
- Rapolano has a stop on the railway line Siena - Chiusi.
- Through the village leads the Roman road Via Laurentana, which is a portion of a variant of the Via Francigena here.
In the local area was degraded mainly travertine and marble until the 2000s. First mining operations have already taken place before the 3rd century BC, in the late Middle Ages began the renewed activity from 1597th
Rapolano maintains since 2000 a community partnership with the Hungarian place Fertőrákos.