Richard, Duke of Burgundy

Richard the court, Mr (Latin: Richardus Justitiarius, French: Richard le justicier; * 858, † 921 in Auxerre) was a Frankish nobleman from the family of Buviniden. During the late 9th century, he summed up the west of the Saône -lying areas of the old Burgundy together under his rule and thus is considered the founder of the medieval Duchy of Burgundy, today Bourgogne region of France.



Richard was the son of Buvinus, Count of Metz and lay abbot of Gorze, and his wife Richilde of Arles. His brother was Boso of Vienne and his sister Richildis was the wife of the West Frankish king and later emperor Charles the Bald. About his maternal aunt Richard was also a nephew of King Lothair II.

Richard was for about 887/888 married Adelheid, a sister of the tranjuranischen Dux and later King Rudolf I of the family of Guelph. His wife brought him the County of Auxerre as a dowry into the marriage.

Brother fight

After the death of the Emperor Louis II ( 875 ) accompanied Richard and his brother Boso her brother, King Charles the Bald, to Italy, who was there in Rome by Pope John VIII crowned emperor. By appointment Bosos to Dux and Missus Regius in Italy Buviniden arrived in a leading position, particularly in the Burgundy region. To 877 Richard took over together with the Guelph Hugo Abbas by his brother the Office of the missus in Italy, after he was dismissed from there.

Richard himself first appears as Count 876, probably used in Sens. 879 Boso the death of King Louis the Stammerer, to rise in Lower Burgundy ( Cisjuranien ) and Provence to the king. Richard wore this step not and remained loyal to the Carolingian kings Louis III. and Carloman, what he was paid 880 with the investiture of the county of Autun and the investiture as lay abbot of Saint- Symphorien. In the same year he led in conjunction with the kings Louis III. , Carloman and Charles the Fat a campaign against his own brother, whom he beat in the vicinity of the Saône and Mâcon and Lyon took. A first siege of Vienne in August 880 failed. After a second attempt in September 882 Richard finally managed together with King Carloman the capture of the city. Boso was able to escape, but his wife and children were taken prisoner and Richards were placed under the care of Autun.

After Bosos death ( 887 ) Richard furthered his sister Ermengarde as regent in Lower Burgundy and led his nephew, Louis the Blind, to the court of Emperor Charles the Fat, who adopted the boy.

Duke of Burgundy

After the death of King Carloman ( 884 ) supported the East Frankish Carolingian Richard Charles the Fat as the new king in the West Frankish Regnum. So he came into rivalry with the family of Robertiner to Count Odo of Paris, was elected king after the deposition of Charles the Fat 887. Richard but supported along with William the Pious, Ramnulf II of Poitou and Archbishop Fulk of Rheims the underaged Charles the Simple and seized in the following years Tonnerre and Nevers, while the Count of Dijon and Chalon -sur -Saône him as their overlords recognized. After these successes, King Odo saw in May 892 at a meeting in Chalon -sur -Saône forced to acknowledge Richard in his assembled dominion, who took a neutral stance between Carolingians and Robertinern in return. Then, he began to consolidate his rule in his field. 894 he conquered Langres and let dazzle the robertinischen bishop of the city. The following year he took a Sens and Troyes and locked the Archbishop, who had performed the consecration of King Odo, in a dungeon. Furthermore, he made ​​himself the lay abbot of the Abbey of Sainte -Colombe in Sens and Saint-Germain in Auxerre.

During this conflict Richard was also engaged in the defensive struggle against the Normans. These were sunken 888 in Burgundy and Beza had plundered. Richard began its persecution and beat them at Saint -Florentin. In the same year, Richards had Schwager, the trans jurassic African Dux Rudolf, arrange to have them in his dominions to the king and so founded the Kingdom of Upper Burgundy.

After the death of King Odo ( 898) Charles the Simple was widely recognized, which in turn recognized as Richard Markgraf ( marchio ), making him claim to be the first Prince of remaining in the West Frankish Regnum Burgundy. Then, he continued to be committed against the Normans. This still had 898 Tonnerre and Montbard attacked, whereupon Richard surprised at Argenteuil -sur -Armançon and defeated. 911 attacked the Normans under Rollo Auxerre. Richard allied himself with the Marquis Robert of Neustria, Count Ebalus Mancer of Poitou and the Bishop Géran of Auxerre and won in July 911 at Chartres a crushing victory over the Normans, which led to the Treaty of Saint- Clair -sur -Epte.

Since the year 918 Richard was titled as " Count and Duke of Burgundy " ( comes et dux Burgundiae ). He died in August / September 921 and was buried in the abbey of Sainte -Colombe in Sens. The Aquitaine Duke William the Pious had Cluny founded in 910 in Burgundy, the famous Benedictine abbey.


The children of Richard and Adelheid were:

  • Rudolf ( Raoul, † January 15 936 ), Duke of Burgundy and 923 King of France
  • Ermengarde, ∞ Giselbert († 956), Duke of Burgundy
  • Richilde ( Richeut; 948/955 testifies ), ∞ Liétaud II, Count of Mâcon († September 7, 965 )
  • Hugh the Black ( Hugues le Noir, † December 17 952), 936 Count and Marquis of Provence, Duke of Burgundy
  • Boso I ( † 935 after September 13 ), Count of Provence
  • Adelheid ( † after 920), ∞ Reginar II Count of Hainault
  • Duke (Burgundy )
  • Graf ( Sens )
  • Graf ( Auxerre)
  • Buviniden
  • Burgundy
  • Born 858
  • Died 921
  • Man