Richards Bay is a city in the South African province of KwaZulu -Natal. It belongs to the municipality in the district uMhlathuze uThungulu. In 2001, she had 44 852 and 2011 57 387 inhabitants. The city lies on the Indian Ocean about at sea level. Here is the cargo port port Richards Bay.
Richards Bay was founded in 1879 during the First Boer War by Sir Frederick Richards as a port. Richards was the namesake of the city. 1969 got Richards Bay city status.
In Richards Bay is the harbor with its industrial plants and tourism are important economic factors. Near the lagoon from Richards Bay dunes are degraded from heavy mineral sands with Titanerzgehalt ( ilmenite ).
The port facilities are among the largest in the world. Land, the area has a footprint of 2,157 acres plus 1,495 acres of water surface.
In 1968 it was decided to provide the port with a rail link into the country, because of the expansion of industrial plant in the framework of the Border Industry policy of apartheid government came forward. It was therefore planned to a line to Empangeni. In 1976 the port was extended to a deep water harbor with train connection and an oil and gas pipeline to Johannesburg.
Coal terminal and its transport links
The coal terminal (Richards Bay Coal Terminal ) of the port began on April 1, 1976 to work and is the world's largest coal loading facility for. Its genesis owes long-term contracts between South African coal mines and the Japanese steel industry.
Over a long period, the rail links from the domestic market have developed the harbor at very efficient transport routes with great importance for the national economy of South Africa. Between 1946 and 1950 originated sections of Ogies to Broodsnyersplaas. In the 1970s designed and built at the South Africa Richards Bay Coal Line Project on, and therefore the aim of a carbon transport of Mpumalanga was traced to a private South African port. Previously a ship loading at the Portuguese Lourenço Marques was administered preferably possible. As Mozambique in 1975 went to the independence of this transport route for South Africa had become politically insecure.
Today ( 2013) passes the 580 km double track the Richards Bay Coal Line in the coal mining areas of the Witbank region via Black Hill, Ogies, Ermelo, Piet Retief and Vryheid East to Richards Bay. The railway line necessitated the construction of 137 bridges and 37 tunnels. The South African freight division, Transnet Freight Rail the state company Transnet planned in 2010 to further enhance the Zulieferungslinien with a budget of 15.4 billion rand.
In the harbor there is an aluminum smelter. The production of aluminum based on the import of bauxite as South Africa has no such deposits. Since 1971 the company ALUSAF, founded by the Industrial Development Corporation, the necessary raw materials from Australia introduces.
Phosphate industry and its transport links
The company Triomf Kunsmis began in Richards Bay in 1976 with the processing of raw materials originating from Phalaborwa phosphate to phosphoric acid. From Triomf is 1984 Indian Ocean Fertilizer (IOF ), which is gradually starting in 1987, bought by Foskor, the main South African producer of phosphate products and 2001 operating under the name Foskor Richards Bay. Here in addition to phosphoric acid and phosphate granules of diammonium phosphate (DAP ) and monoammonium phosphate (MAP) fertilizer and sulfuric acid is produced. Main importing countries of the products are India, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Bangladesh and Dubai. Today ( 2013) reach 84 percent of the processed phosphate concentrates in Phalaborwa to Richards Bay. The plant employed 2010 more than 600 employees.
The connection of the mining area around Phalaborwa to Richards Bay east of a line extending track required a new route within Swaziland, which arose in consequence of the political development in Southern Africa in individual sections. A few years after the independence of Mozambique and after the commencement of the Mozambican civil war, the first section between the South African border town Golela, with connection to the South African route network, to a railroad junction in Phuzumoya about 6 kilometers east of Siphofaneni was built in Swaziland on 1 November 1978. This resulted in a previously built part of track that once the traction further allowed to Mozambique, to the north.
The necessary and so far missing northern stretch branches a few kilometers north of the town Mpaka of the old railway line from and has now led to the vicinity of the South African border at Tshaneni further parallel with the Lebombobergen up to Komatipoort and went on 14 February 1986. In Komatipoort again was connected to the South African route network. Since this stretch the opening in the network of Swaziland Railway assets from the north, for example, from Zimbabwe, Zambia and the eastern parts of South Africa to the ports of Richards Bay and Durban can be transported.
Tourism is also an important source of income. There are many opportunities for outdoor sports on offer including surfing and fishing. In addition, Richards Bay is located in the immediate vicinity of Zululand with its many cultural and natural attractions.
Another important leisure offer is the Richards Bay Game Reserve. The wildlife park is situated in a lagoon and offers water birds, hippos and crocodiles and other animals protection that were heavily hunted before the establishment of the park. The biodiversity of the park is constantly growing, especially in birds. In addition, the lagoon is an important spawning ground for many fish.