Robert Hartmann

Charles Edward Robert Hartmann ( * October 1, 1831 or October 8, 1832 in Blankenburg ( Harz), † April 20, 1893 in Potsdam ) was a German naturalist and ethnologist.


Hartmann studied in Berlin medicine and science, accompanied in 1859 and 1860 Baron Adalbert von Barnim, son of Prince Adalbert of Prussia and Therese Elssler (wife of Barnim ) to northeast Africa, in 1865 teacher of zoology and comparative physiology at the Agricultural Academy Proskau and 1867 lecturer, from 1873 professor of anatomy at the University of Berlin.

He provided several studies on the anatomy of marine animals, employed at the Italian and Swedish coast. Being on the African trip, especially in Dschesiret - Sennar, collected material for geography, ethnography and zoology he worked in the travel business of Baron A. von Barnim through East Africa, etc. (Berlin 1863).

Hartmann and African Studies

Hartmann was a friend of the African explorer Heinrich Barth, the positive assessment of the Africans he shared. His work on the extensive and designed several books work on the Nigritier ( meaning the black Africans ) he hired because he increasingly target of attacks by racist colleagues were, who accused him that he was during his stay in Africa itself to the " Negro " become. His research, he was only able to continue outside the university area, and the studies on the culture of Africans that he wanted to continue within the meaning of the 1865 deceased Heinrich Barth, had to give way to the anthropological research, with Hartmann, in contrast to most colleagues not to racial-ideological interpretations of the anthropological findings was carried away. In particular, the representatives of the Darwinian theory of evolution as Ernst Haeckel and Friedrich von Hellwald attacked Hartmann, who openly turned against a common ancestry and known to be a modified form of polygenism, ie the doctrine of the multiple origins of the same genera ( eg the people ). in different regions of the world.


  • Travel of Baron A. von Barnim by Northeast Africa. Berlin 1863
  • Natural History - medical sketch of Nilländer. Berlin 1865-1866
  • The Nigritier. Berlin 1876, Volume 1
  • The peoples of Africa. Leipzig 1880
  • The Gorilla. Zoological and zootomische investigations. Leipzig 1880 ( full text )
  • Handbook of Human Anatomy. Strasbourg 1881
  • The anthropoid apes and their organization in comparison to the human. Leipzig 1883
  • Abyssinia. Leipzig 1883
  • The Nilländer. Leipzig 1883
  • Madagascar etc. Leipzig 1886

Hartmann founded in 1869 with Adolf Bastian, the Journal of Ethnology, was secretary of the Berlin Society for Anthropology, Ethnology and Prehistory and Secretary General of the Anthropological Society.