Houses on the Grand -Rue
Role ( German outdated: roll) is a municipality in the district of Nyon in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland.
Role is to 376 m above sea level. M., 11 km north-east of the district main town Nyon ( straight line ). The town extends on the flat riparian strips of Lake Geneva, at the foot of the Vaud Cote.
The area of 2.7 km ² large municipality area includes a section on the northwest shore of Lake Geneva. The communal land extends inland from the shore over the shallow shoreline strips to the main road that runs from Nyon along the slope foot of the Vaud Côte after Aubonne. Here is 442 m above sea level. M. reached the highest elevation of role. To the southwest, the area extends to the mouth of the creek Flon de Vincy in Lake Geneva. From the municipality surface 1997 57 % came from settlements, 6% of the forest and shrubs, 36% to agriculture and slightly less than 1% was unproductive land.
With 5847 inhabitants ( 31 December 2012) role belongs to the medium-sized municipalities in the canton of Vaud. Of the 73.9 % inhabitants are French-speaking, 4.9 % and 4.3 % portugiesischsprachig English speaking ( as of 2000). The population of role increased during the first half of the 20th century slowly. Since 1950 was a stronger growth, especially during the 1960s and 1990s. In contrast, there was little change between 1970 and 1990.
Role has long been an agriculturally coined town. Today, agriculture plays only a minor role as a source of income of the population. In the municipality there are several small wine-growing areas and the large winery Schenk SA. On the remaining agricultural land agriculture predominates.
Since the mid-19th century, next to the urban crafts and trades and industry has settled in role. Most jobs are in the services available. Role is the seat of the Société suisse of employés de commerce (Le Courtil ) and the Ecole Internationale Le Rosey, for example, Benno Elkan, the sculptor has visited. As a regional center of the Vaud Côte role has a hospital, wine shops and tourist infrastructures. In recent decades, the place has developed thanks to its attractive location into a residential community. New residential areas have been built mainly in the west and northwest of the old town.
The place is conveniently reach and accessible. He is on the main road 1 which runs from Geneva along the lake to Lausanne. The highway access role on the A1 opened in 1964 ( Geneva -Lausanne ), which crosses the municipality, approximately 1 km from the city center.
On April 14, 1858 of section from Morges to Coppet of the railway line Lausanne- Geneva was taken with a station in role in operation. For the dispersion in public transport, the postal bus lines that run from role to Gland, Gimel and Aubonne care. Furthermore, the town is connected to the maritime transport system on Lake Geneva. From 1898 to 1938, the interurban tram was role - Gimel (RG) from Rolle to Gimel in operation.
In the area of La Combe settlement traces have been found dating from Roman times. The first mention of the village was carried out in 1294 under the name of Castrum Rotuli. 1295 appeared the name Ruello and 1330 Ruelloz. The place name comes from the Latin word rotula, the diminutive of rota (wheel). The actual founding of the city role was in 1318 under Louis II of Savoy next to the castle already existing. The Savoy built so that an antithesis to the rule Mont- le -Grand, whose castle stood in the municipality of Mont- sur-Rolle.
With the conquest of Vaud by Bern in 1536 role came under the administration of the bailiwick of Morges, and made it a Kastlanei, which corresponded approximately to the role territory of today's district. After the collapse of the ancien régime, the town from 1798 to 1803 during the Helvetic Republic belonged to the canton of Geneva, who came up then with the enactment of the Act of Mediation in the canton of Vaud. 1798 role to the main town of the district of the same created at that time was charged.
Role has a medieval cityscape; the houses are along the Grand- Rue, the single longitudinal street of the town. The Protestant parish church Saint- ridge, which was consecrated in 1519, underwent several transformations in the 18th century, while the bell tower dates back to the Middle Ages. In the neo-Gothic style, the Catholic Church of Saint Joseph was built in 1843. It has stained glass in the choir of Alexandre Cingria ( 1929).
The castle of Rolle, built in 1264 by the Counts of Savoy, in 1530 and 1536 burned by the Confederates. It is right on the lake and was formerly protected from the country through trenches. The palace complex shows an irregular ground plan: a three- wing building with an open west trapezoidal large yard. Most of the building dates from the conversion and new construction in the 15th and 16th centuries. At the end of the two projecting west wing are each a round tower (the northern originates as a single in the 13th century ), while the castle against the seafront of two square towers flanked. Today is located in a part of the castle town council role.
In the historical center, numerous old houses from the 17th to 19th centuries have been preserved. The Maison d' Allinges with a battlement-topped entrance was built in the 16th century. By 1875, the casino comes. By the lake since 1826 is the neo-classical pavilion Petite Fleur d' Eau.
In the lake there is the artificial island Île de la Harpe, was founded at the beginning of the 19th century to protect the harbor. On the tree-covered islets is since 1844 a monument to Frédéric - César de la Harpe. The mansion of the domain de Pré Vert was built in the late 19th century.
- Ernest Biéler (1863-1948), painter
- Henri Bouquet (1719-1765), Colonel
- Benno Elkan (1877-1960), sculptor, visited the boarding school "Le Rosey " in role
- Jean -Luc Godard ( born 1930 ), film director, has his residence in Rolle
- Born Frédéric - César de la Harpe (1754-1838), Member of the Executive Board of the Helvetic Republic in role
- Amédée Emmanuel François La Harpe (1754-1796), General
- Anne -Marie Miéville ( born 1945 ), film director
- Jean Preudhomme (1732-1795), painter, born in role
- Julien- François Zbinden ( * 1917 ), composer, born in role