The Campagna Romana, short and Campagna (not to be confused with Campania, Italian Regione di Campania), is the hilly area of Rome, between the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Apennines. In the accepted sense Campagna called the crossed by the Roman Via Appia, marked by ancient grave monuments and ruins of Roman aqueducts the Lazio region (Italian Lazio) between Rome and the Alban and the Sabine mountains ( altitude up to 1300 meters). Main rivers are the Tiber and Aniene. Although the boundaries of the Campagna are not exactly fixed, one can start from an area of about 2,100 square kilometers.
In ancient times intensive agriculture was operated, not least to provide the capital; numerous wealthy Roman citizens built mansions here usually in the form of luxurious villas. In the Middle Ages irrigation problems, the extensive deforestation of past centuries and, not least, the constant threat of malaria, however, led to a depopulation of the Roman hinterland. Only in the 19th and 20th centuries, there was a renewed upswing, including by the draining of the Pontine marshes.
Geology and Topography
The main geological features of the because of their aesthetic and tourist attractions famous for centuries landscape are the lava flows and volcanic tuffs of the neighboring Albanian mountains ( height up to 948 meters, . Using the Lago Albano, who has served in Roman times as a water reservoir Alba Longa is considered the oldest Latin city ) and the Monti Cimini. And today's Lake Bracciano (Latin: Lacus Sabatinus, about 60 km from Rome ) is a former volcanic crater. The volcanic region around the lakes was active the last time around 225,000 years ago. Today, the Lago di Bracciano is a popular destination for vacationers and weekenders with the medieval village of Anguillara Sabazia. Also known Faleria, in the nearby castle Paterno to Emperor Otto III. have been poisoned, and built on a tuff rock artists village Calcata.
Places and landscapes of the same name
Campagna is also called an Italian commune in the province of Salerno. Campagna Lupia is a village in the province of Veneto. There is also a Campagna Adorna in Switzerland ( a landscape ). Other bucolic landscapes will be happy - more or less justified - alluding to the Campagna also so called, where such similarities were identified. Since the word in Italian plain land ( community ) means (it could be a campaign my! ), It will be there on the campagna toscana, campagna pisana etc. applied.
Effect and reception
The Roman Campagna (deprecated Germanized occasionally Kampagna ) has numerous artists and educational travelers attracted and inspired. Very well known is Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein painting by Johann Wolfgang Goethe, showing the poet in this landscape.
Goethe traveled on October 28, 1786 on the Via Flaminia towards Rome. His impressions:
Another famous German Italian traveler, namely Ferdinand Gregorovius raves mid-19th century: