Rosh Hashanah (also Rosh Hashanah, in Ashkenazi pronunciation noise ha - ha - Schono or Roisch Schono or popularly known in Yiddish Rosche Schone, Rosche Schune; Hebrew ראֹשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, Principal of the Year, the beginning of the year ') is the Jewish New Year. The Mishnah, the most important collection of religious traditions of rabbinic Judaism, puts this firmly fixed as the beginning and for the calculation of the calendar year.
The New Year's greeting is שנה טובה Shana tova, a good year or שנה טובה ומתוקה Shana tova u'metuka, a good and sweet year.
Time and embedding in the Jewish calendar
Rosh Hashanah falls according to the Jewish calendar on the first of Tishri, which falls in September or in the first half of October according to the Gregorian calendar. The precise date in the Gregorian calendar changes from year to year because the Jewish calendar with 12 lunar months 29-30 days counted ( Synodic 29,53 days). To bring the 354 or 355 days of the solar year into line, about every three years, a whole leap month is inserted.
On Rosh Hashanah begin the Ten reverential days (Hebrew Yamim Nora'im ), ending with the Day of Atonement Yom Kippur. The rabbinic literature describes this day as a day of judgment. Some descriptions depict God as sitting upon a throne, with books with the deeds of all people lie open before him.
The New year greeting " Good slip " is etymologically possibly a corruption from the Yiddish or Bible Hebrew and derives from the Hebrew ראש השנה טוב Rosh Hashanah tov ( = a good start, literally: head - of the year - well, so something like: " good New Year " ) from. This phrase should have become familiar to the early 20th century in German.
The Rosh Hashanah is biblically attested in Leviticus 23.24 to 25 EU Numbers 29.1-6 EFA and the basic features in Ez 40.1 LUT. It starts in the fall, at the end of the day after the 29th day of the Jewish month of Elul. It takes two days to the end of the day of the second day of the month of Tishri (even in Israel where otherwise most holidays are only one day ). The second day was added later. There is evidence that Rosh Hashanah was celebrated only one day to the 13th century in Jerusalem.
Reform Judaism celebrates generally only the first day of the feast. Orthodox Judaism and Conservative Judaism observe both the first and the second day.
Rosh Hashanah occurs 163 days after the first day of Passover. Under the currently valid Gregorian calendar Rosh Hashanah can not occur before September 5, such as in 1899 and again in 2013. According to the year 2089 the differences between the Jewish calendar and the Gregorian calendar will result in Rosh ha Hashanah can not be earlier than September 6. Rosh Hashanah can not be later than October 5, such as in 1967 and again in 2043. The Jewish calendar is structured such that the first day of Rosh Hashanah never on a Wednesday, Friday or Sunday falls.
The following table shows the dates of Rosh Hashanah, the last and the next for years. Rosh Hashanah begins at sunset of the evening before the date specified in the table.
The Samaritans are celebrating their Rosh Hashanah, however, in the spring, at the beginning of the month Abib. Some researchers believe that this is the original pan- Israelite custom. The disputes about the date of Rosh Hashanah go back to Talmudic times ( Mischnatraktat Rosh Hashanah ).
Even after the Torah begins in spring ( on 1 Nisan ) in the New Year Ex 12:2 LUT ( 2 Genesis 12:2).
Religious classification, traditions and customs
Rosh Hashanah is the beginning, according to the Talmud and in consequence anniversary of the creation of the world, but also stands for the anniversary of the birth of Adam. It is the day of the claim, to take stock of the moral and religious behavior in the past year, and it occurs with prayers for a good future ahead of God.
It is a day of shofar blowing. In the Torah, this day is also known as the day of the shofar. ( Lev 23.23 to 25 EU) It is also called " day of blowing noise ".
Rosh Hashanah is not a day of mourning, but a celebration, at which the Jews - to rejoice - because of God's mercy. Apart from the Hallel, which is omitted in the New Year, it is like all other festivals in his solemn features: clothes, washing, hair cutting, inner preparation and festive meals.
Rosh Hashanah is Yom Hadin, " Judgment Day ": On New Year three books are opened. Ins the very first " righteous " are entered, "Get Seal of Life" which immediately. In the second book, the very " evil" can be entered which will receive the "seal of death." And the third book is for the " mediocre " determines who can demonstrate both sins as merit. The final judgment will remain open during the period from New Year's Day to the Day of Atonement. Through introspection and repentance, it is possible to obtain the seal of the living.
The order of prayers, shofar, kiddush and meals, which is valid for the first New Year's Day, is also true for the second New Year's Day. However, it is not a "second holiday ", as is common in the diaspora with the other holidays. Both days together called the Talmud as a 48- hour-long holiday. Because of this provision is the fear that you might " unnecessary benedictions " at Shehecheyanu, Kerzenanzünden and the Kaddish said on the second day. In order to overcome these doubts out of the way, pulling on the second New Year's generally a new garment and provides a bowl on the table that contains fruits that you have not eaten this time of year. The blessings you will now obtain it.
In the afternoon of the first day, there is the custom of Tashlich, after a prayer for the forgiveness of sins this strip symbolically by throwing rocks or bread crumbs into the water.
The synagogue is held on Rosh Hashanah, as well as the prayer leader predominantly in white. This is to symbolize purity.
Enjoyment of honey cake ( Honek - Lejkech ) Zimmes, grapes, sweet wine and dipped in honey apple (or challah ) discs press the hope for a good, sweet year. Also a symbolic piece of a fish or sheep's head with the words, sometimes " May it be your will that we be the head and not the tail " eating.
Another custom is the eating of pomegranates, which contain many nuclei. For this we say: " May it be Your will that our rights are increasing as the pomegranate. "
In Yiddish-speakers communities carrots ( numbers) with the words were " May it be thy will, that our rights are increasing " eaten. Sometimes dates are eaten, whereby said: " May it be Your will that our detractors and accusers perish. "
The blessing after the service is " leschana towa tikatewu " or Ashkenazi " leschono tauwo tikossejwu " ( "You may be accounted inscribed for a good year"). Before Rosh Hashanah visiting the graves of deceased relatives and " righteous " to be inspired by the memory of their lives for the coming year. In the morning before the New Year festival is after the morning prayer, the " delivering vows " instead (before three faithful who have formed for this purpose, a "court" ).