Rota is 58 km northeast of Guam and 90 km southwest of Tinian. The island is 19 km long, 8 km wide, and has in a coastline of 61.6 kilometers an area of 85.39 km ². The highest point is Mount Manira 495 m above the sea.
The island has 3283 inhabitants ( 2000) and with 1411 inhabitants Song Song is the largest settlement on the island.
Rota was from 1899 to 1918 part of the German colony of German New Guinea. On October 21, 1914 Rota was occupied by Japanese troops.