Rotary printing press
Rotary printing is a printing technique that applies to all three main printing methods ( low, high and flat pressure) can be applied.
The rotary presses there are various types, ranging from single and double works (1/1, 2/ 0) on the tower works (2/ 0 to 4 /4) to satellite construction (up to 16 printing units on an impression cylinder ).
The construction of the rotary machine was not a revolutionary invention, but rather the result of a long development. Technology History preceded him the platen press, the main form of printing press ( around 1440 ), and the cylinder press ( 1811). 1846 was built by the British Augustus Applegath for the Times a rotary machine which managed 12,000 prints per hour. This machine has been improved by the American Richard March Hoe, William Bullock and the Frenchman Hippolyte Auguste Marinoni. Developed at this time was already machine more quickly than others. However, further changes were necessary, which were made especially in the period of 1860-1870 in Great Britain and the United States.
The American William Bullock built 1863-1865, the first fully functioning rotary machine. You could make both the recto and the verso printing in a printing operation and had round stereo plates as a print form. Bullock sat the first two form and an impression cylinder. The machine was fully automated and managed 10,000 sheets per hour.
The breakthrough was the former owner of the Times, John Walter III. , And two technicians of his print. J. C. MacDonald and J. Calverly built 1862-1866, a web-fed rotary machine. This was later called " Walter Press". From 1869 to 1895 three aircraft of this type continuously for the Times were in use. In 1885 they were supplemented by a cutting and folding.
1873 presented the Maschinenfabrik Augsburg - Nürnberg, later MAN AG, at the World Exhibition in Vienna, built on the principle of Walter fed rotary press machine. In the same year these for printing the Austrian newspaper Die Presse ( Vienna) has been used.
For commercial printing a rotary machine was first built in 1879 by MAN, used for the magazine The illustrated world that appeared in the German publishing house Stuttgart.
1902 was the first rotary machine that could print text and images at a time, used to print the Berlin Illustrirte newspaper.
1912, the first rotary offset machine from the Vogtland Maschinenfabrik ( VOMAG ) was developed with the support of Caspar Hermann.
1939 abolished the rotating machine of the Times production has a circulation of 40,000 copies of a 32 - page newspaper.
Rotary printing function according to the pressure principle round to round, which means that both the printing plate and the back pressure are cylindrical. Both cylinders are separated from each other in constant counter-rotating movement and only through the substrate.
For multi-color printing, the machine is equipped with a respective printing and inking unit for each color.
Sheetfed and web presses
In offset printing and gravure printing is only spoken of rotary printing when printing on rolls. In letterpress printing, a distinction is made between the rotary printing and sheet-fed rotary printing.
Through constantly in one direction rotating cylinder and the web a faster pace of work can be achieved as in sheet-fed presses. This is used by high -volume, pressure mainly.
A sheet-fed rotary engine has an output of approximately 7,000 prints per hour. In their individual sheets are processed. With up to four color decks multi-color printing is possible in one operation. The printing plates are either curved plastic plates or winding plates.
Fed rotary machines have a capacity of about 35,000 cylinder revolutions per hour and are used due to their speed, especially in the printing of newspapers. The paper web is printed directly from the roll. Often these machines are made in the floor construction. The finished paper webs are directly transferred to the processing, that is cut after printing, folded and worn. Only the finished product leaves the rotary machine again. For each revolution of the cylinder to receive a new ink adhering on the printing process, depending only on the surface to certain elements.
The most common rotary printing processes is the offset printing.
The rotary printing uses include the production of newspapers, books and other printed products in large numbers.