The Permian (often linguistically Rotliegende ( s ), but technically not recommended) [Note 1] or Lower Dyas is a rock unit or a unit of lithostratigraphy in the hierarchical rank of a group and the lower portion of the Central and Western European Dyas. The Dyas (the " Divided ", according to the pronounced in Central Europe division in Rotliegend and Zechstein ) was an alternate name of the Permian system, the internationally could not prevail. In today's scientific opinion Rotliegend is no longer a time interval, but only a purely defined by lithologic features rock unit (unit of lithostratigraphy ). The Rotliegend corresponds mainly to the international chronostratigraphic series of lower and Mittelperm ( Cisuralium and Guadalupium ). Upper and lower limits are diachronically. Local reaches the base but far into the Upper Carboniferous in, the upper limit is sufficient in some cases clearly into the Permian into.

History and naming

The Permian takes its name from the many striking red-colored rocks, from which the rock unit is constructed. " Permian " is an old miner expression from the Mansfeld region and refers to the red, stored under the usable copper shale rocks. Since this waste rock was found in the footwall of the copper shale, it was originally referred to as " red dead Lying ". The red color of this sandstone layers is caused by finely dispersed hematite flakes ( hematite ) and refers to the deposition in the hot climate.

Definition and type region

The lower limit of the Permian has not yet been definitively; it is strongly diachronically. In the Saar -Nahe Basin, the lower limit at the base of Remigiusberg formation, in the Wetterau region at the base of Lindheim formation, either in the Thuringian Forest at the base of Georgenthal-Formation/Möhrenbach-Formation or at the base of Ilmenau- formation. In the northern Saale sink is the lower limit on the basis of the Hall lineup, on the Flechtlinger soil at the base of Sueplingen lineup, in Vorerzgebirge at the base of Härtensdorf formation, in the Basin of Döhlen at the base of Unkersdorf formation and in Northern Germany usually applied to the base of the volcanic complexes. The upper limit, however, is almost everywhere well-defined and quasi -isochronous; it is the base of the Lower Werra- tone ( copper slate or copper shale formation and its equivalents). The rock unit Rotliegend includes terrestrial, fluvial, lacustrine, aeolian and volcanogenic sediments of coarse conglomerates and breccias, sandstones on up to fine-grained clays, evaporites and limestones. Locally, massive igneous rocks on ( lavas, pyroclastics, ignimbrites, rare subvolcanic body ). The rocks of the Rotliegend are caused predominantly colored red by the arid conditions of the deposition area. The Rotliegend achieved locally widths up to over 3000 m. Type region is Central and Western Europe. According to the uncertainty of the lower limit of the Permian starts regionally probably already in Gzhelium, the top level of the international chronostratigraphic Upper Carboniferous ( Pennsylvanian ) and extends into the lower Wuchiapingium, the lower chronostratigraphic stage of the international Permian ( Lopingium ). In absolute numbers the Permian covers a period of probably more than 45 million years, from about 302-257 million years ago.

Subdivision of the Permian

Traditionally, the Rotliegend was divided into the Unterrotliegend and in the Oberrotweil prone. In the early days of the lithostratigraphy of the Permian regional Mittelrotliegend also a distinction was made, who was involved later in the Unterrotliegend. The Unterrotliegend is defined by "mixed" layers, ie the layers ( or formations ) are alternately superimposed with gray, red or volcanic deposits. In contrast, the prone Oberrotweil includes only red beds, which often begin with coarse clastic beds. Silence ( 1924) interpreted these beds as a result of tectonic movements and defined between the lower and Oberrotweil Lying an orogenic phase, the so-called Saalische phase. However, a correlation of these Saalischen phase between the individual sub-basins is not possible. In the Stratigraphic map of Germany was therefore omitted subdivision of the Permian in the lower and Oberrotweil prone.

As a lithostratigraphic subdivision in sub - and Oberrotweil Lying is difficult to have Haubold & Katzung (1972 ) attempted to replace lower and Oberrotweil Lying by the most commonly used as synonyms terms Autunium and Saxonium and to define these biostratigraphically. The definition of the boundaries is extremely problematic Autunium and Saxonium are useless as chronostratigraphic units. Menning et al. (2005) do not recommend the continued use of these terms.

The Permian was deposited in Germany in a series of separate basins, therefore each have their own sedimentation. Accordingly, the sediments of each basin can not be lithostratigraphically or difficult to correlate; therefore separate formations were excreted for each sub-basin.

  • Saar -Nahe Basin ( Remigiusberg lineup, Altenglan lineup, Wahnwegen lineup, Volume corners lineup, Meisenheim lineup, Disibodenberg Formation, Upper churches lineup, Thallichtenberg lineup, thunder mountain formation, Wadern lineup, Sponheim lineup, Standenbühl lineup, Kreuznach formation). The formations are summarized by some authors to some subgroups.
  • Wittlicher Valley: Ürzig lineup ( with Springiersbach, ignimbrite and Engelberg- Subformationen ) Kinderbeuern lineup ( with Bengel, Bausendorf and Seng Büsch - Subformationen ) and Altrich lineup ( with Wittlich, Salmtal, Berlingen and New Castle - Subformationen )
  • Wetterau: Lindheim lineup, Old City lineup, Düdelsheim lineup, Schoeneck lineup, Bleichenbach lineup, Rodenbach lineup, Altenmittlau lineup, Glauburg lineup, Cornberg lineup
  • Eastern edge of the Rhenish Slate Mountains: Battenberg lineup
  • Thuringian Forest: " basal sediments " (not yet named), George valley formation, Möhrenbach lineup, Ilmenau lineup, Manebach lineup, Goldlauter lineup, Oberhof Formation, Rotterode lineup, Tambach lineup, Elgersburg lineup, Eisenach formation, Neuenhof lineup
  • Stockheimer pool: stock home lineup, Föritz lineup, Reitsch lineup
  • Muehlhaeuser pool: Mühlhausen lineup, Kirchheilingen lineup, Altengottern lineup
  • Unstrut Basin: three informally been named lithostratigraphic units
  • Rudolstädter pool: three informally been named lithostratigraphic units
  • Gera Basin: Cretzschwitz lineup, Gera lineup
  • Northeastern Saale Basin: Hall Formation ( eg Gallows Hill ), Hornburg lineup, Eisleben lineup
  • Flechtinger plaice: Sueplingen lineup, Roxförde lineup, Winkelstedt lineup, Uthmöden lineup, Bebertal lineup, Föhrberg lineup
  • Döhlen Basin and Briesnitz Basin: Unkersdorf lineup, Döhlen lineup, Niederhäslich lineup, Bannewitz lineup
  • North West Saxon pool: Kohren lineup, Rochlitz lineup, Oschatz lineup, Wurzen lineup
  • Chemnitz Basin ( = Vorerzgebirgs Valley pp): Härtensdorf lineup Planitz lineup, Leukersdorf lineup, Muelsen lineup
  • Weissig Basin: Hutberg lineup, Napoleon Stone Formation
  • North German part of the Southern Permian Basin ( four subgroups: subgroup Altmark, Müritz- subgroup, Havel subgroup ( Parchim and Mirow Formation), same subgroup ( Dethlingen and Hanover Formation) )
  • Permo-Carboniferous basins in Baden- Württemberg ( Kraichgau Basin, Schramberg Basin, Offenburg Basin, Breisgau Basin, Northern Swiss pool): Schriesheim lineup, Lichtental lineup, Geisberg lineup, Michel Bach lineup, vineyard lineup, Schramberg- formation, Ibenbach sediments ( informal unit) Weitenau lineup
  • Ilfeld Basin at the southern edge of the Harz: Fox castle formation, Netzkater lineup, Neustadt- formation, Sülzhayn Formation ( Limbach- Subformation, brawn - Subformation, Dörnsenberg - Subformation ) Werna lineup and Walkenried lineup
  • Meisdorf basin on the northeast edge of the resin: Wolfstal lineup, Triftbach lineup, Ballenstedt lineup, Kirchberg lineup, Endorf lineup and Eisleben lineup


Fossils from the Permian is known primarily from the Saarland ( Lebach and Oberthal ), Rhineland -Palatinate ( Nierstein, Bad Sobernheim, Or Home, Jeckenbach, Rockhausen ), Thuringia ( Manebach, Friedrichroda, Tambach- Dietharz ), Saxony -Anhalt ( Halle / Saale) and Sachsen (Chemnitz, Dresden). Famous are the animal tracks of Nierstein, the dinosaurs ( amphibians) or from home and Jeckenbach, the primordial reptiles from the locality " Bromacker " in Tambach- Dietharz and the " Petrified Forest " from Chemnitz.