A round- Ling (also circular village, Rundling village ) is a village settlement form in which in the early days to develop land to German law, a predominantly Slavic population was settled by a local landlords in a scheduled task or summarized, the courts wedge or sector shaped by a round or oval space are grouped, the disposal at the plant only through an access.
The distribution of the winder is limited to a strip of land between the Baltic and the Erzgebirge, which runs in a medieval contact zone between Germans and Slavs. Within this area of distribution, the Rundlinge have received best in the Hanoverian Wendland.
- 4.1 Rundlinge in Wendland 4.1.1 appearance
- 4.1.2 Application as World Heritage Site
- 4.2.1 Rundlinge in Brandenburg
- 4.2.2 Rundlinge in Mecklenburg- Vorpommern
- 4.2.3 Rundlinge in Lower Saxony
- 4.2.4 Rundlinge in Saxony
- 4.2.5 Rundlinge in Saxony -Anhalt
- 4.2.6 Rundlinge in Schleswig -Holstein
- 4.2.7 Rundlinge in Thuringia
Round logs are at a high point near a valley with a body of water, respectively. The access road comes from the increased and dry lying arable hall, the impasse is in the direction of the humid lowlands with lawns.
The Rundling distinguished by the fact that the farms of the village in a wedge - shaped sector or group to a round or oval place, the disposal at the plant only one access road.
The shape of the building, there was not a typical Rundling house. In principle, all round Lingen traditional village house forms are encountered. Predominantly, however, the hall house in gable position.
Due to the proximity to the lowland lies inside of the winder no village pond. Even churches or chapels are not used for the period of the plant on the village square. These were later built in front of the village.
There are among the grown and planned rural settlement structures of European landscapes no other village form that offers such a structural unity. The alignment of all farms with the gable of the main building to the village square, it is a structurally particularly characterful expression of this rural habitat.
A Rundling originated from initially few, horseshoe or semi- circularly arranged courtyards which eventually trained by division or Zusiedlung further Homesteads a radial shape. Here are assumed for the start-up phase 3-10 yards. The subsequent development of the gaps could extend over centuries. With the almost complete circle circuit, so that the only gap only remaining access roads, the further development opportunity was extinguished within of the winder. Where, in such a case, along the access road further Homesteads created, was a dead-end village.
Time of origin
Little is known about the time of origin of most of round logs. The oldest Rundlinge found particularly mentioned in documents of the 9th century in the Ilmenau area of the district Uelzen, ie at the former western border of the Slavic settlement area. In Wendland was the first mention of the 11th and 12th century date. Whether at that time already a Rundling form was designed arises from the deed texts not just as little the exact settlement location. Large-scale takes place for the first time mentioned in a document of round Lingen then in the 14th century, partly also with references to the system in a round shape. General is now assumed that the formation of about the year 1150. The main argument for this dating is the total absence of Slavic shards finds at the sites of round logs. The round logs may have been created only at a time, then, was no longer used as a Slavic ceramics. That was the earliest from the Wendish Crusade of the case.
The particular shape of the villages has led since the mid-19th century to various theories about their origin, their scientific debate is still ongoing.
First, the view prevailed that Rundling is a form of settlement of the Germanic early days. That proved to be just as little validity as the assumption that it is a genuinely Slavic settlement form. Not assignable was also the assumption that it is an innovative form of settlement of the Frankish state colonization of the 9th century. Based on the results of the toponymy, the settlement research, archeology and onomastics is now essentially agreed that the Rundling is a planned scale of settlement from the early days of the high medieval eastward expansion. Next there is agreement that it has acted predominantly Slavs among the inhabitants. It is controversial whether these have become autonomous, united about in regard to the economy practiced by German settlers, or only at the instigation of local landlords to village communities under German law or were. The prevailing opinion tends clearly to the latter view. Completely unknown is still the purpose of locating in round shape. Neither the military or place of worship still thought the cattle kraal was hitherto occupied. The speech as a passing fad should be discarded because the plant form is ineffective because of their finiteness. Based on the results of excavations of Dessau- Mosigkau and the settlement of Krumme on Machnower Fenn is discussed if the Rundling is not yet due to the moderate form precursor of a Slavic round hamlet and was granted by the landlord.
In summary, it can therefore be stated that the Rundling due to its almost entirely Slavic place name of Slavic origin of the name of the majority of its inhabitants in the name lists of the 15th century, the lack of Slavic pottery from sites in round Lingen, the Wendland until well into the 17. century polabischen spoken language and the formation of an oriented grain production hall of urban area is a that has emerged from 1150 by local landlords to intensify lucrative for them grain production by combining the previously isolated settled Slavic inhabitants.
The development of Rundlinge took a different regional history. For example, while in Schleswig -Holstein as early as the 13th century came a strong reshaping under the impression of a 2.Siedlungswelle that Rundlinge in Wendland were further compressed. The population of the local round villages grew depending on soil quality and yield. Therefore, it came relatively early in the fertile lower Geest to Nachsiedlungen and formerly Semicircular developed for Rundling while dealing with light soils received the half laps in the high Geest. For the group of the first settlers, the Vollhufner, such as a Viertelhufner came in the 14th century in most villages equivalent Nachsiedler ( Kossater ) that want their settlement often caused the conclusion of the village square in round shape. The 15th to 17th centuries, to be followed division of the whole hoof in half, third and quarter hooves led to numerous main building had to be taken back to the Hofplätze. This also makes were from small semi- rounds still Rundlinge arise. Also contributed to a further compression in the 15th - 17th Century re Nachsiedlungen by Kossater and Brinksitzer, purchase and degrader at.
In contrast, led medieval Wüstungsprozesse in Wendland to complete abandonment of round Lingen. Numerous fires the soft roofed houses usually had a devastating impact and led to the thinning of narrow buildings, in some cases, partial or complete reorganization of the form of settlement.
In recent times, but in earlier centuries, the cul de sac -like structure of round Lingen was disrupted by road construction. This happened many times after fires when was space for street breakthroughs through burned buildings.
The distribution area of the winder extended in the Middle Ages from East Holstein over the Duchy of Lauenburg and West Mecklenburg along the eastern parts of the districts of Lüneburg and Uelzen in the Lüchow- Dannenberg, the Altmark and the District of Gifhorn and from there over Wolfsburg, northern Thuringia to to Saxony.
Today Rundlinge found almost exclusively in the Hanoverian Wendland and adjacent areas of neighboring counties.
Round logs in Wendland
The Wendland, so today Lüchow- Dannenberg is a nearly closed circulation area of the Rundlinge carrying almost all Slavic place names. In this area, the nature of the village, the resort has well preserved. The reason for this is first the natural spatial delineation of this Slavic settlement area, which was separated from the Saxon area through the only difficult to overcome wooded ridge of Drawehn and of the German populated areas in the Altmark through the swampy land grave depression. Of equally great importance is also likely to be that the Hanoverian Wendland after the 12th century was affected by any other immigration or resettlement waves, so that the small-scale structure of round logs had not be converted into other, more economical forms of settlement. Today's building fabric of the round villages, which dates from the 18th and 19th centuries, has been largely preserved because the Wendland since the Middle Ages was always a structurally weak region away from the major trade routes.
On old maps found in 1800 just under 200 round villages in Wendland. Today, this form of settlement is read only at about 100 villages in the Wendland in the village. Typical examples are Jameln Satemin and Schreyahn. The classic Wendland Rundling located away from main roads, originally with three to ten wedge-shaped Vollhofstellen very small and usually has only a single access. The closely juxtaposed Low German hall houses are grouped around a round or oval village square, the economy gable facing all this place.
So far could not be demonstrated that the Wendland occurred since the first colonization processes fully trained round villages. In the order of Slavic small settlements by the German manorial often seem to have originated small semi-circular cul de sac -like systems. In them Slavs were resettled on and later also recognized German immigrants. Throughout German - Slav border strip evolved from them Rundlinge when the proportion of the Slavic population was at the time for German colonization larger. Thus, it is likely to be a form of settlement of the West Slavic population in what is now eastern Lower Saxony.
The present appearance of round logs in the Wendland region is characterized not only by the settlement, but also by the type of house and its preservation. The culturally and historically engaging, uniquely preserved buildings of today Rundlinge was essentially 1680-1890. If this was the time of great agricultural reforms and intensive home- screen commercial production. After this relative economic heyday, in which a relatively wealthy peasant class could develop, it never came to a positive agricultural economy in the Wendland again and the absence of new phases led to the preservation of traditional pre-industrial settlement and designs.
Application for World Heritage Site
15 concise round villages in the Hanoverian Wendland have been nominated as a cultural landscape for the German Tentative List for future UNESCO World Heritage applications in 2012 by the state of Lower Saxony. 2013 decision, the Standing Conference on the candidacy and the earliest from 2017 selects the new UNESCO World Heritage Sites from.
The application was justified by the fact that the round villages represent a selection of distinctive high medieval colonization settlements in the Lüchow -Dannenberg. Your uniqueness press itself through the interplay of a concise local ground plan, a large density of gable constantly focused on the central square of Low German hall houses as well as a region-specific expression of this house type. Chances of success in the candidacy hopes the state of Lower Saxony in that the application is aimed at under-represented categories of cultural landscapes and the rural architecture within the world heritage.
Rundlinge outside the Wendland
Round logs in Brandenburg
The circular villages in Brandenburg east of Elne usually have more the sort of dead-end villages. Access to the village inside is usually pointed shaped like the tip of a village green, so that results in a teardrop shape for the village. The houses are almost always traufständig. Often churches stand in the middle of the square. The villages are often mentioned only in the 14th century, while the classic Rundling was built in the period from 1140 to 1250. So you differ in four essential characteristics from the classic Rundling. The most common is in the form of deadlock. Most of these around ling like Sackgassendöfer located in Prignitz, the Nachbarschaftlanschaft of the Wendland. Examples:
- Paplitz in the Teltow -Flaming ( reshaped strong)
- Radeland in the Teltow -Flaming
- Buberow in the district of Upper Havel ( looks more like a dead-end village)
- Holy Sepulchre - Jabel and the Holy Sepulchre -Glienicke in Ostprignitz -Ruppin (both are more like a dead-end village)
- Wolter small village in the administrative district Prignitz ( looks more like a dead-end village)
- Kuhblank in Prignitz
- Läsikow in Ostprignitz -Ruppin ( looks more like a dead-end village)
- Kuhblank in Prignitz
- Zehdenick beings village in the district of Upper Havel
Round logs in Mecklenburg- Vorpommern
Angel reported in 1936 that only in southwest Mecklenburg, that can be found with a long detectable Slavic population, really real Rundlinge in that part of the country and identifies as such the now heavily over-molded villages Wöbbelin Fahrbinde and Lehmkuhlen. In Mecklenburg- Vorpommern, there are today no more Rundlinge.
Round logs in Lower Saxony
In Lower Saxony there are adjacent to the Wendland more or less over-molded round logs in the eastern district of Uelzen with Bock Holt, United Ellenberg, Katzien, Növenthien or Kölau, in the Wolfsburg districts on the Vorsfelder Werder how Wendschott, Brackstedt, Rühen as well as in other places in close as Barwedel and Velpke.
Round logs in Saxony
- At the circle (Alt -Radebeul ) in the district of Meißen
- Altzitzschewig ( Zitzschewig ) in the district of Meißen
Round logs in Saxony -Anhalt
- Berenbrock ( Calvörde ) in the district of Borde
- Winkelstedt ( Kalbe / Milde ) in the Altmark Salzwedel
Round logs in Schleswig -Holstein
In Schleswig -Holstein passed in 1960, no more lap warmers. Documented Lingen round of the 13th - 15th century include, for example Fitzen, Holstendorf, Lance ( Lauenburg ) or Talkau. Most likely the settlement structure can still be seen in Kankelau.
Round logs in Thuringia
In Thuringia there are numerous Rundlinge between the Ilm in the west and the White Elster in the east. Examples are the places Mertendorf and Bobeck in the Saale- Holzland and many villages between Weimar and Jena.