From the daily fluctuations in traffic demand can generally three categories of traffic periods derived: The Rush Hour ( HVZ ), the normal rush hour or off-peak time ( NVZ ) and the off-peak time ( SVZ ), the evening also called late rush hour.
In the rush hour ( HVZ ), colloquially referred to as peak traffic time, peak time, peak time or rush hour, especially the work trip purposes ( rush hour ), and school predominate ( school transport ). In the immediate vicinity of schools and kindergartens is caused by the transportation of children to begin the lesson and the collection for Teaching often the special form of school rush hour. The traffic volume is particularly strong in the rush hour, and it often leads to traffic jams. The demand just for morning rush hour is to be considered inelastic because of work and school starts usually are fixed. The midday rush hour is dominated by school transport, affecting mainly the public transport (PT ). The tip falls mostly of low, therefore this period is not reported anywhere as rush hour. In the evening rush hour, the traffic peak usually falls lower than in the morning, since there is a larger distribution. The rush hour is usually 6-9 Clock and 16-19 clock. In rural areas, the beginning and the end can to move up to an hour as most journey times for commuters between country and metropolitan areas are larger.
In the rush hour on public transport often, there are other measures (travel episodes) or driving times, sometimes is also fahrplanlos driven with maximum headways ( for example, in Paris and New York). In private transport special traffic lights, speed limits, lane splits and one-way rules may apply in peak periods ( such as in Hamburg Sierichstraße: It is each one-way street in the load direction, 4-12 clock into town, 12-4 clock out of town).
In agglomerations an extension of Rush Hour is observed on the morning or in the evening as the road users attempt to avoid the daily traffic jam. Also, the longer shop opening times noticeable.
In the telecommunications sector the rush hour according to ITU- T Recommendation includes about four hours a day without more precise definition. For Germany it is on weekdays from 09:30 bis 11:30 clock clock, and thus includes a period of two hours.
In addition to Rush Hour
The off-peak time ( NVZ ), the rush hour with medium or normal traffic or passenger transport and corresponding cycles or vehicle use in public transport represents the traffic demand here is therefore smaller than at rush hour. It is dominated by the delivery vehicles together with the purpose of journey errands, errands and shopping. The off-peak period starts in urban areas on weekdays at about 9 clock and ends at around 16 clock where this is true in most cases for the Saturday. In rooms with a distinctive school transport the off-peak period is interrupted for mid-day student trip home.
Sometimes also referred to as the NPCs normal rush hour.
The traffic demand in the off-peak time ( SVZ ) is low. The trip purposes leisure, recreation and housing predominate. The off-peak period starts on week days generally after 20 clock (through the extension of shop opening times often only after 21 clock ) and lasts until the morning rush hour, on Saturdays it is considered full-time outside the off-peak time and on Sundays and public holidays. In large cities with greater distances and much tourists share on Sundays and holidays in public transport during the time from noon till night is gone as to off-peak time.
Within the off-peak period, a distinction between early and late traffic. A breakfast traffic is particularly offered on Sundays and public holidays until the beginning of the normal daily traffic. A special late night journeys take into account the changes in traffic demand in the late evening (cultural sites, nightclubs, etc.). In smaller cities in Germany, the regular city bus service on Sundays is often added only at midday in contrast to those cities in Switzerland, the morning drive - call collection taxis (AST ).
Sometimes the SVZ is also referred to only as a late rush hour.
Night traffic time
In the following the assignment of the individual transport times from the transport plans of the cities Bottrop and Rostock is exemplified. The Bottroper local transport plan in this case has the noonday students ride home from a rush hour. What is striking is the very short morning rush hour in Rostock. Overall, the Bottrop example corresponds to (apart from the lunch rush hour ) rather the classifications used for the major metropolitan areas.