Russian Constituent Assembly


The formation of a democratically elected Constituent Assembly was one of the main goals of the Russian Revolution parties before the Russian Revolution in 1905. Tsarist government decreed the introduction of basic civil rights and held elections from a new legislature, the Duma of 1906. However this was neither authorized a new constitution to decide not to abolish the Czarist regime. The majority of the cadets themselves here and not Marxist socialists. The government dissolved the Duma, both in July 1906 and after the election on June 3, 1907 on back. A new electoral law was adopted in consequence, that the poor and the workers that involved. The decisions of the Duma were often rejected by a veto of Tsar Nicholas II and the Upper House of Parliament, which is why it was deemed to be ineffective as well as a representative office in the first line of the lower classes and the wealthy layers continued to demand universal suffrage.

Provisional Government ( February-October 1917)

With the abdication of the Tsar after the February Revolution of 1917, a provisional government took power. It was formed by the liberal Duma majority and supported by the socialist -dominated Petrograd Soviet. By the will of the Grand Prince Michael II, who refused the throne after the abdication of his brother, the new government should be a national election for a Constituent Assembly to hold, which would then determine the form of government. Parts of the Russian Empire, however, were occupied in the context of World War I by the Central Powers. Between February and October 1917, there were four governments, the one that provisional ' was until the conclusion of a definitive form of government by the Constituent Assembly sought therefore.

Election results from 12./25. November 1917

The election for the Constituent Assembly gave the following results:

Midterm Election and Constituent Assembly ( November 1917-January 1918 )

On November 21, Navy Commissar Dybenko ordered 7,000 pro-Bolshevik Kronstadt sailors " full combat readiness " for the day of the co- stepping the Konstituanten on November 26. A gathering of 20,000 Kronstadt " soldiers, sailors, workers and peasants," declared that they would only support a Constituent Assembly that:

Meeting of the Constituent Assembly on 5./18. January 1918

On the morning of January 5th 1918 a large demonstration in support of the Constituent Assembly was shelled and dispersed by troops loyal to the Bolshevik government.

A quorum Constituent Assembly took place at 5.jul. / January 18 1918greg. between 16.00 and 6.jul. / January 19 1918greg. 4.40 clock together in the Tauride Palace. In a prepared speech of Lenin, the prominent Bolshevik Ivan Skvortsov - Stepanov explained why his party would not submit to the elected Constituent Assembly:

At 4 clock in the morning said the chief of the guards AG Schelesniakow to Chernov: " The guards are tired. I suggest that you end the session and let all go home. "

From Petrograd to Samara (January to June 1918)

Locked out of the Tauride Palace, held the deputies of the Constituent Assembly from several secret meetings in the Gurevich - high school, but had to realize that the circumstances were increasingly dangerous. Some tried to avoid in the controlled by the Central Rada Kiev, which was but even compelled on January 15, 1918 to leave the city. Ultimately, this triggered the Constituent Assembly to as a coherent entity.

The Central Committee of the Socialist Revolutionaries met in January and decided against an armed resistance:

Dial gains in winter and especially in spring 1918, they succeeded to win pro- SR and anti-Bolshevik majorities in various Soviets, however, the Soviet government refused to accept the election results and solved the corresponding area Soviets up. One of the Bolshevik leaders in Tula, NW Kopulow, wrote to the Central Committee of Bolschwiken early 1918:

In response, the Social Revolutionaries and Mensheviks meetings of Arbeiterdepudierten began parallel to the Bolshevik Soviets hold. The idea was popular among the workers, but had little effect on the Bolshevik government.

The Samara Committee (June to September 1918)

The agreement was supported by the Socialist-Revolutionary Central Committee, which two of his right-hand members, Nikolai Dmitrievich Avksentiev and Vladimir Mikhailovich Zenzinov, delegated to the five-member Board. The cadets presented the members Vinogradov and Wolgogodskij. However, as Viktor Chernov arrived in Samara on September 19, 1918, he convinced the Central Committee of the conservative orientation of the Directors and of the insufficient SR- presence, so that the support of the SR was withdrawn. The decision left the Board back in a political vacuum and it was overruled on November 18, 1918, at their " supreme leader " declared as right Kolchak officers.


With the disappearance of the largest party of the Constituent Assembly, the Entente was the only force which supported the reinstatement. On May 26, 1919, she gave her support to Kolchak under the condition of free elections at all levels and the re-opening of the Constituent Assembly. The latter rejected this on the grounds that the elections under the Bolshevik government had taken place and were not really free from. On 12 June 1919, the Allies accepted this decision.

Historical Research