An S-Bahn is a city high-speed railway and both technically and legally a railway and a train type of rail transport in Germany or of the regional transport in Switzerland. Technically, the S -Bahn is a transport system in urban areas ( suburban railway, suburban railway English ), which also offers inner-city connections. S- Bahn systems stand out as a rule by homogeneity, otherness, a higher specific traffic performance and higher market positioning of the offer from the other regional services from without requiring doing a complete technical definition.
The term "S -Bahn " was coined 1928-1930 in Berlin, most likely as an abbreviation for the local new " city rapid transit ," the prototype of all S- Bahn systems. The often suspected as the root word labels " light rail " ( for the Berlin Stadtbahn ) and " rapid transit " were particularly occupied otherwise. The term " light rail " has, however, regionally and further development of the tram ( fast tram, U - Bahn city ) yet acquired another meaning, and can designate an existing addition to the S -Bahn own transportation system. S -Bahn is used as a label for the individual vehicle (S- Bahn cars, tram - train ), and as shorthand for a used only by S- Bahn trains railroad line and an S -Bahn line.
- 7.1 S -tog in Denmark
- 7.2 RER in France
- 7.3 S -Bahn -like systems in Italy
- 7.4 Szybka Kolej Miejska ( SKM ) in Poland
- 7.5 Pendeltåg in Sweden
- 7.6 Beovoz in Serbia
- 7.7 Cercanías in Spain
- 7.8 Esko in the Czech Republic
- 7.9 Similar networks in other countries 7.9.1 Europe
- 7.9.2 Outside Europe
Delimitation of the power supply
Compared to the conventional railway regional transport the S-Bahn occurs almost exclusively in urban areas and is characterized mainly by their higher specific traffic performance. There are also at least in Germany to a limited extent different legal regulations as well as the conscious representation of the offer as "S -Bahn " on the part of the operator, which attracts an increased perception in politics and the public by itself.
S-Bahn trains have developed as a special form of operation from the classic railroad out. Therefore, they are also often operated by state-owned railways or its affiliates.
The S-Bahn differs from traditional offerings of the railway passenger usually caused by:
- A clock schedule with a dense sequence of moves and prolonged periods of operation,
- Comparatively small distance between stops, both to the mainline as well as to the precursor transport,
- Strong networking with the other transport in local public transport,
- Special unit trains, the high transport services ( electrical operation, high acceleration values , reduced seating capacity, relatively low passenger comfort) and rapid passenger (many and wide doors ) are designed to
- Usually accessible and generously sized access systems for continuous and so fast as possible passenger change even with high traffic volume,
- Especially in heavy traffic sections, by separate alignment, sometimes in conjunction with a different technical infrastructure (power supply or Command)
- Own, opposite the mainline accrued operating organization,
- At least in Germany special and different legal regulations in the railway construction and operating regulations for buildings and vehicles of urban railways,
- Special expenses for the marketing of the offering and targeted presentation of the offer under a brand name such as " S -Bahn ", the increased perception associated in the public and the political prestige associated with the offer.
Regard to the definition of conventional railroad but all features with the same consistency are not always implemented. Especially in areas with substantial backlog of investment in rail infrastructure, it can happen that are to be found up to the brand name virtually none of the features mentioned. Here plays mainly the political and public perception of the offer as a modern transport a role, and not the actual improvement of the same compared to the precursor transport.
From a subway or metro can be a commuter train bound usually in the following way:
- The network has emerged from the long-distance railway network, including the peri-urban and suburban routes has not been built from the ground up specifically. Recurrent exception in numerous S-Bahn networks elaborate, underground or elevated tracks through the inner cities to enhanced accessibility of the main business areas.
- Technical parameters such as track distances, curve radii, vehicle dimensions and power supply are entirely or at least largely consistent with those of the mainline, so that the mixed use paths with the mainline is possible.
- S-Bahn route networks are usually of a large-scale, so that the radius of action extends far beyond individual city limits. Frequently suburban trains also serve limited local development, which manifests itself in relation to subways by greater distances between stops in the inner city noticeable.
- Especially in Germany S-Bahn trains are unlike subways as railroads in the real sense after the General Railway Act. So there is, consequently, the Railway Construction and Operating Regulations relevant legal basis for the operation and not the tram construction and operation order as in the subway. In Austria and Switzerland, there is no such legal distinction, however, this also applies to other countries such as the United States.
- The infrastructure and mostly vehicles and operators of society, while subways are the property of their respective mainline society in general in municipal ownership.
As with the determination to train the transitions towards subway or city and tram are more fluent. Thus, the S -Bahn is performed virtually entirely in some cases, such as a subway independently of the rest of the rail traffic on their own rail lines and has an incompatible infrastructure, such as the Berlin S-Bahn or S- Bahn Hamburg. The Karlsruhe model, however, is an example of the deliberate overcoming the boundaries between S -Bahn and tram. And the City of Sydney rail system is a mixed system of U -Bahn, S -Bahn and regional trains.
History of development
Starts with steam
The increasing local circulation of steam hauled trains on the railways in and around the growing young German capital Berlin prompted the Prussian State Railways for the construction of their own, separate from the long-distance tracks for suburban services. Urban planning model was created in 1882, the Berlin metropolitan railway with separate track pairs for the suburban and long-distance traffic as the root path that collects the suburban traffic from different directions today. The previously placed in service ring road and the railway lines to the Berlin suburbs were also separate sections suburban tracks.
On 1 October 1891, the railroad introduced a special tariff for the steam trains of the Berlin suburb town, ring and suburban railway, as the system was henceforth called a. This transport rate was not approved for the use of long-distance trains. In addition, the suburban railways raised increasingly verkehrlich off by a compression of the sequence of moves from the long-distance transport.
Similar development in Hamburg. Under the name of Hamburg- Altona City and Suburban railway opened the Prussian railway management Altona 1906 passengers by steam hauled trains between cities Blankenese, Altona (Elbe ) and Hamburg.
As long as the electric drive was still in development, the steam power ruled the railways. The electric railway with 15,000 volts of alternating current from the overhead line was at the beginning of the 20th century still rare. In Berlin, the light rail as the rest of the railway was operated under steam. The Berlin suburb of traffic should be more economical and modern, since the load of the city was perceived by the emissions of steam locomotives to be annoying. The results of several experiments with alternating current and direct current, which found application rather trams and underground trains were, for local and long-distance railways due to the then technical status different from. The German Reichsbahn finally opted for the electrification of the city of Berlin, ring and suburban railway for direct current of 800 volts, which is supplied to the new railcars on a side of the track -mounted power rail. The entire fleet had to be replaced anyway. In 1924 went to Berlin the first electrified urban railway route in regular operation.
In Hamburg, the DC operating at 1200 volts from a lateral conductor rail was introduced in 1940 similar to the principle of the Berlin S-Bahn. Thus, the existing in Hamburg since 1907 system was replaced with AC overhead line after a short transition period. Due to the effects of World War II consisted of the parallel run ( on the same track ) AC operation until 1955.
Brand and symbol
To emphasize the modernity of competing with the U -Bahn Berlin's new city and suburban railway network, it was from December 1930, the designation S-Bahn city suburban railway. Thus was introduced the abbreviation "S -Bahn " as a mark after the electrification of the city, ring and suburban railways (from 1924) in Berlin. There was also a new symbol ( logo): the white S on a green background, as a counterpart to the white U on a blue background of the subway. In Austria the white S is inserted into different shapes on a blue background. Vienna as the federal capital, the oldest of the Austrian S-Bahn networks and therefore also the oldest logo with the characteristic square S. This logo is still in use in Vienna, but it is often already with the modern round S, the younger at Austria's S- paths ( eg Graz) is used, replaced or used side by side. An Austria -wide standardization of the album was originally planned, but has been implemented up to now only partially. In Switzerland, there is no uniform identification.
- S-Bahn signets
S -Bahn logo Austria (modern)
S -Bahn logo Vienna (Traditional)
S -Bahn logo Salzburg
S -Bahn logo Bern
S -tog logo in Copenhagen
Linee S- Logo Milan Italy
Esko logo Czech Republic
The existing suburban railways had already functions of today's urban rapid transit, such as a dense regular intervals. A first own, compared to the normal rail fare cheaper suburb tariff was already introduced on 1 October 1891. Beginning in 1934, also used the Hamburg- Altona City and Suburban Railway the name and the symbol S-Bahn.
The term S -Bahn was registered as a word mark for the German Bahn AG in the German Patent and Trademark Office. At the request of a transport - purpose association, the brand has been deleted by the Patent Office. The Federal Patent Court has confirmed the deletion by decision of 14 March 2012 mainly. The German railway had collected a royalty of 0.4 cents per train kilometer for the use of the mark and thus saved millions of dollars annually.
The word and design mark S is still owned by Deutsche Bahn. The German Federal Railroad had these in 1980 to protect the German Patent and Trademark Office and since then twice, most recently in 2009 for a term of protection until 2019, extended.
While Berlin and Hamburg had for the S-Bahn from the beginning largely own railway networks had to be mostly set up on mainline tracks in other regions of the light rail rapid transit. Frankfurt am Main, Leipzig, Stuttgart, Munich and Zurich also received monocentric systems. All four cities have a terminal station, where a tunnel for the train serves to guide the suburban services on a common trunk route through the city center to idea to use the existing rail network again on the other side of center. In the Ruhr region has, however, a polycentric network with the purpose to connect several major cities with their suburbs. The lines in the Rhine -Ruhr region are compared to the other networks significantly longer and the number of passengers on each section varies. An S- Bahn network is usually operated by a single company. The exceptions are the S- Bahn Rhein -Ruhr S-Bahn Salzburg, the S-Bahn Steiermark and most commuter trains in Switzerland.
S-Bahn in Germany
In December 1930, the designation S -Bahn and the symbol of a white S on a green base for the city, ring and suburban railways was introduced in Berlin. Hamburg took over the Berlin S-Bahn term starting in 1934 for his urban and suburban railway. The remaining non -operated electric railcars, but with steam trains suburban lines were integrated into the network and the tariff of the S-Bahn and partially electrified later. Today, the S-Bahn tariffs are replaced by composite tariffs with the other transport means. It was not until the 1960s originated in Germany more S- Bahn systems.
The S-Bahn Hannover has been no uniform tariff system because they went and even to North Rhine- Westphalia travels over the GVH area (Greater Hannover Transport ). There are three composite rates, a country's tariff (NRW - tariff ) and the transport rate of the DB used.
The first S-Bahn trains resulting in the two largest cities of Berlin and Hamburg were able to use well-developed suburb tracks from the steam train time. As of 1907, the urban and suburban railway in Hamburg and Altona was electrified with the then state of the art AC system with overhead line. In the (second) Electrification the DC power supply is selected with feed via the lateral busbar, because larger new buildings, such as bridges and tunnels could be made smaller, which the construction costs reduced. In addition, this allowed a parallel operation of AC and DC vehicles, the conversion could be done so in stages. The common use of the tracks by railways with AC motor coaches (in Hamburg ), steam and diesel locomotives and direct-current S- Bahn trains came here just as in the later emerging suburban trains.
These mixed operation with the rest of the rail traffic gave the Berlin S-Bahn and S -Bahn Hamburg on gradually. The later built ac power through overhead line for the " ordinary " train is on the same track with DC technically so complicated that a complete separation of investment in S -Bahn and mainline railway tracks has been most meaningful and traffic reasons. Thus, the suburbs could continue to be well supplied and outside interference with S- Bahn train connections.
All other S-Bahn in Germany are just supplied as in the railway generally common with alternating current via overhead lines. These networks could be opened quickly to a great extent, without having had to wait for the extensive construction of special tracks. So many trains, for example, the Munich S-Bahn on the end portions on regular railroad tracks. However, the S- Bahn service is prone to failure for late regional or long-distance trains and consolidate its clock schedule hardly. Therefore, subsequent special S- Bahn tracks are supplemented also with the AC -S -Bahn networks.
S- Bahn systems often have adapted to the S -Bahn trains platform heights. These are 76 cm and 96 cm above the top of rail. The stepless entry and exit to accelerate the exchange of passengers, so that the trains can go on again after a few seconds. In the East German S -Bahn systems previously predominated particularly low platforms, here mostly double-deckers are used. Some commuter trains run by and by the usual regional transport platform height of 76 cm (eg, S- Bahn Rhein -Ruhr S-Bahn or Nuremberg), which proves to be due to the mixing operation with regional trains as the best possible solution.
In Germany S-Bahn lines run generally in the rush hours in the core area at least every 20 minutes. Through the parallel running of several lines on the same sections as arise headways up to about two minutes. At the line end points in the surrounding areas, the offer will spread over time. A better rail service can be reached here usually only by its own roadbed.
With the end of steam traction, the widespread use of composite rates and the introduction of synchronized timetable for large parts of the rail transport, the distinction between commuter trains and other regional trains was blurred. Thus, in the S -Bahn Hannover line S5 runs the only hourly through the sparsely populated Weser mountain country, to Paderborn. The Magdeburg S -Bahn has only one line, which runs every hour.
There are other lines of the S- Bahn service, which only use a line that is not part of a network. The distance between Verden Bremen Main Station and Bremen -Vegesack was many decades served mostly without own logo every half hour and had in the northwestern part of station spacing of about 1 km. Since the late 1990s drove here like bi-level cars like the Magdeburg S-Bahn. Since December 2011, the route is part of the Regio -S -Bahn Bremen / Lower Saxony.
The Breisgau S-Bahn runs on diesel fuel railcars, but has half-hourly and low particularly in the Freiburg city area distances between stops.
In Germany there are the following electrified suburban railway networks with more than one line:
- S- Bahn Berlin
- Regio -S -Bahn Bremen / Lower Saxony
- S -Bahn Dresden
- S- Bahn Hamburg
- S -Bahn Hannover
- S -Bahn Magdeburg
- S -Bahn Central Germany ( Leipzig, Halle ( Saale), Zwickau )
- Munich S-Bahn
- S -Bahn Nürnberg
- S- Bahn Rhein -Main (Frankfurt am Main, Darmstadt, Wiesbaden, Mainz, Offenbach am Main )
- S- Bahn Rhein Neckar (Ludwigshafen, Mannheim, Heidelberg, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe)
- S- Bahn Rhein -Ruhr ( Ruhr area, Dusseldorf )
- S- Bahn Rhein -Sieg ( Cologne)
- S -Bahn Rostock
- S -Bahn Stuttgart
Furthermore, driving in Germany cross-border commuter trains of
- Regio S- Bahn Basel
- S -Bahn Salzburg
- S -Bahn Zurich
In the planning phase includes the following networks:
- S -Bahn Lübeck
- Regio -S -Bahn Danube -Iller
- S -Bahn Augsburg
- Breisgau- S -Bahn 2020 ( from 2020 )
Although the regional Stadtbahn Karlsruhe used a green S-Bahn logo, but used in networks and other publications the rail brand. A U- Stadtbahn logo would hardly be appropriate due to the lack of tunnels, which was started in early 2010 with the construction of light rail tunnel, which is to shift the entire inner city traffic underground. → See also the Karlsruhe model.
When Ortenau S -Bahn in Offenburg, with its long overland routes and train frequencies of less than one pair of trains per hour, the brand S -Bahn is only effective advertising part of the name of a regional train.
S-Bahn trains in Austria
The first S-Bahn network in Austria - to 2005 was mostly the term rapid transit usual - was built in the 1960s in Vienna ( Vienna S -Bahn ). Is a sharp-edged white "S" on a blue background As a symbol. The shape of S is intended to stylize the course of the regular route through Vienna. Above all, the angular shape was chosen because a normal round-shaped S to 1989 was for the light rail Vienna. The Vienna S -Bahn opposes Berlin and Hamburg no independent system represents, but used, apart from the main route into the city center, largely normal railway lines. Until recently, the S-Bahn railcar were clearly recognizable by their own blue color, now acquired the entire transport a uniform ÖBB- coloring mainly in red, the S -Bahn in Vienna runs on the main line in the 3 - to 7.5 - minute interval.
The S-Bahn Salzburg was opened in 2004, in part, the full expansion is not yet reached. She is the first Euregio train in Austria, ie a cross-border commuter train, which also includes the suburbs of Salzburg on the German side. The routes are operated by three different companies (ÖBB, Salzburg AG and Berchtesgaden train). ÖBB- lines use the conventional rail network and operating exclusively above ground. Two other lines are operated by Salzburg AG, but due to a strongly deviating from the rule of symmetry minutes do not provide optimal connections. You can reach the main train station in the tunnel. As a common symbol is here a curved white " S" used on light blue background.
The S-Bahn Tyrol was opened simultaneously with the S -Bahn Steiermark, as a third S-Bahn system in Austria and is still in the development phase. The first S-Bahn line connected from 9 December 2007, the state capital 5-22 clock in the 30 -minute interval initially on the skyscrapers along the Inn valley axis in the agglomeration breakpoints Fie, West Railway Station, the main railway station and rum with the surrounding communities between telfs and Hall.
Meanwhile, supplies the Tyrolean S -Bahn to six lines to the suburbs of Innsbruck and more distant communities in all four directions and operates in the central section Hauptbahnhof - Hall in the 15 - minute interval. On the lines S3, S4 and S5 to Increased frequency and short courses found by superimposing REX trains. As a further extension measures several new stations ( Sieglanger, WIFI, exhibition, hall duty free zone ) are in the greater Innsbruck built and existing ones are being added for better connectivity to the network IVB (All Saints, Hoetting ). With the timetable change 2012, the 15 -minute interval to be extended eastwards to Jenbach.
The S-Bahn Steiermark was launched with six lines in December 2007, coinciding with the S -Bahn Tyrol as a third S-Bahn system in Austria and is still in the development phase. The project will be worked since 1998. The commissioning took place on 9 December 2007 and the completion should be done by 2016. The S-Bahn provides better connections at 15- minute intervals. A total of nine S -Bahn lines in the Graz will be in use in full operation. The S-Bahn is a cooperation between the railway companies ÖBB, STLB and TBI.
The S-Bahn Carinthia has initially launched on 12 December 2010 with the line S1 ( Spittal / Millstattersee -Villach -Klagenfurt - St. Vitus Friesach) in operation. In 2011, to follow step by step S2 ( St. Vitus Feldkirchen- Villach- Rosenbach ) and S3 ( Weizelsdorf -Klagenfurt -lead castle ), the two lines.
Since December 11, 2012 in the Vorarlberg Rhine Valley have long marked with an S-Bahn trains logo on lines S1 (Lindau - Bregenz- Dornbirn - Feldkirch- Bludenz ) and S3 ( Lindau-Bregenz-St. Margrethen ) as S- railway Vorarlberg called. A Bodensee- S -Bahn (Vorarlberg, Germany, Switzerland, currently as an extension of the S6 S-Bahn St. Gallen planned) and an S -Bahn FL.A.CH ( Liechtenstein, Austria, Switzerland, as a term is provided S2 ) are planned. The realization of the project depends most likely by a referendum in Liechtenstein. It is also planned the route Bludenz- Schruns ( operated by the Montafonerbahn ) to incorporate as S4 in the system.
In Austria is currently another tram system for the city of Linz in conversation.
S-Bahn trains in Switzerland
The Swiss S-Bahn trains are often operated by several companies and partly on narrow gauge. They run usually at peak times at least every 30 minutes.
In German-speaking Switzerland, the term S -Bahn is only used with the opening of the Zurich S-Bahn in 1990 and in bilingual publications in French Réseau Express Régional with (short: RER) translated. In schedules the S -Bahn lines appear independent of language with S and the line number.
Vehicle of the light rail train on Line 1 direction Ebikon
The Zurich S-Bahn operates the most populous conurbation in Switzerland and has consequently most of the lines. The lines of the S -Bahn Zurich do not necessarily lead all to the main station of Zurich, in that the S -Bahn Zurich is also not as light rail, but rather as a commuter train. The opening of the S -Bahn was connected with the construction of the Zurich mountain tunnels as well as the opening of an underground station under the main station Zurich bears the project name Bahnhof Museum Street. In the next few years, another underground station is to be built, connecting the Zurich Altstetten under the main station Zurich Oerlikon railway station.
The Bern S-Bahn was built from 1974 in stages since 1995, the term S -Bahn is officially used. It is the only S -Bahn in Switzerland, which bears the letter S on their logo. The train covers a large part of the Bern agglomeration and transported around 100,000 travelers daily. In the bilingual canton of the S-Bahn is also translated as RER Berne. Again, the expansion of the main station Bern for discussion.
Cross-border runs the S-Bahn in the Europe region as Basel Regio S- Bahn Basel to Germany and France. A City Tunnel ( "heart" ) will connect in the future as a regular route each Basel SBB railway stations and Baden train station.
On the Lake Geneva ( Lac Léman fr. ) the S-Bahn Léman is under construction. Currently there are already seven lines as Réseau Express Vaudois around Lausanne, that specializes in the canton of Vaud in operation. In Geneva, is a second center of this network arise, which then integrates the currently operated by tram vehicles RER connection.
More S-Bahn networks originated in St. Gallen ( S -Bahn St. Gallen), in central Switzerland ( network of S -Bahn Luzern and the light rail train ) and Ticino ( Tessin S -Bahn ).
Am Bodensee with the adjoining states of Baden -Württemberg, Bavaria and the Tyrol and the Swiss cantons of Thurgau and St. Gallen and in the Alpine Rhine valley between Chur and Bregenz are transboundary S -Bahn connections in discussion. In this case proposals for a " Bodensee- S -Bahn " and " Alpine Rhine -Bahn " are made. The Principality of Liechtenstein would like to see eased its transport problems with an S -Bahn FL.A.CH.
S -Bahn -like suburban railway systems in other countries
Worldwide, there are the S -Bahn systems in the German-speaking area like suburban rail systems which are partially different from the German S-Bahn networks in their design. The term S -Bahn is used in the German language as a brand name for suburban railway networks in foreign countries used the local language other brand names and also the criteria are different in every country. The difference between urban and regional high-speed rail is often blurred, the French RER stresses eg more regional character.
S -tog in Denmark
In Copenhagen ( Denmark), there is the S -tog ( to German: S- train or S -Bahn ) based on the S- Bahn Berlin - this is the letter " S" only symbolic. At the stations is the "S" for station, so the station. Was opened this train operation in 1934, the lines are marked with letters.; A, B, BX, C, E, F and H, the lines D and E are missing. The S-Bahn is 170 km long and has 84 stations, including 32 in the downtown fare zone. The track has its own track system, separated from the rest of the rail, overhead catenary, fed with 1500 V DC. The trails are both elevated railway and in tunnels. Since 2002, the rail system is complemented by the small Copenhagen Metro ( subway). The new Metro -City ring is under construction. In the center of the S-Bahn has a clock by two to five minutes. Also, the regional trains to southern Sweden and in the suburbs of the metropolitan area are clocked it. These have 35 stations, with five stations in the center and three on the train to Kastrup airport. This includes the Øresund Bridge to Sweden, 7 km from central Copenhagen. To the Copenhagen transport system also includes local railways in the suburbs. The regional train, tram and metro ( subway), local trains and buses are summarized in a uniform network tariff.
RER in France
In Paris Réseau Express Régional for the term (RER), so literally used the regional express network. The term was coined in the 1970s in Paris Réseau express régional d' for the Ile- de -France, but is now also being used in other large cities of France and the French-speaking Switzerland for tram -like railway networks.
However, the use of the term RER is very different in Paris and the provinces. Many use the term exclusively for the Paris network and talk in the province of " RER -like" networks. Only in Paris there are underground regional stations comparable with the tunnel stations of the subway or commuter train. Only since the 1990s build other major French cities from its network of regional services, which initially and for the foreseeable future, but still limited to improving the supply of existing lines. Nowhere is there any concrete plans for tunnel.
In Lyon is a RER network planning, which will probably go as a tram-train operation.
In Toulouse, the line C of the Métro de Toulouse is sometimes called RER toulousain, since it is operated by SNCF trains. The line has six stations on seven kilometers in length, so a station spacing of 1.4 km, comparable to S-Bahn trains.
S -Bahn -like systems in Italy
In several Italian cities and metropolitan areas, there are systems that are similar to an S -Bahn and have different names, depending on its orientation and its concept. However, the Italian S-Bahn trains have normal railway tariffs; uniform tariff systems are rare to find.
- In Naples operated by Trenitalia trains were called Metropolitano (urban train ), and therefore carry the designation "M".
- In Milan by the Lombard railway companies Trenord a suburban rail network ( Servizio ferroviario suburbano di Milano ) is operated. There, the trains carry the designation "S" ( Suburbano, suburban ).
- In Rome there is a tram -like regional transport called "FL".
- In Turin there are five lines of the Servizio ferroviario metropolitano in use. They are operated by Gruppo Torinese Trasporti and Trenitalia.
- In the Bari Ferrotramviaria operates a municipal connection ( Metropolitana ) between downtown and the commuter town of San Paolo
- Other Italian cities have different systems, which were then referred to as regional trains.
Szybka Kolej Miejska ( SKM ) in Poland
The Polish equivalent of the S -Bahn is Szybka Kolej Miejska, literally city commuter train. Networks or single lines with this name exist in Gdansk with neighboring cities ( Szybka Kolej Miejska w Trójmieście, "S -Bahn in the Tri-City " ) and Warsaw, cf Warszawska Szybka Kolej Miejska. In the Upper Silesian industrial district, the first track of here Szybka Kolej Regionalna ( SKR, ie " regional rapid transit ") was taken in 2009 called system in operation. Under the name of BiT City is scheduled to open in 2014 a common S -Bahn for Bydgoszcz ( Bromberg ) and Toruń ( Thorn ). Another system is in Łódź in planning or under construction.
Pendeltåg in Sweden
It has been around since the 1960s, the Pendeltåg (Stockholm), which forms in Stockholm together with the various local railway lines and the subway ( Tunnelbana ) an efficient network. However, the Pendeltåg only has three railway stations in the city center of Stockholm (separate from Metro Stations ). It is used only for traffic between suburbs and downtown. The suburb pendulums are not fundamentally different from other trains to match perfectly the S-Bahn from Magdeburg or Hanover, but not those of Hamburg and Berlin.
The Gothenburg Pendeltåg - network consists of three main tracks, with local trains Alingsås, Älvängen and Kungsbacka. Gothenburg also has the largest tram network in Scandinavia.
No S-Bahn character have Öresundståg and Pågatåg in southern Sweden.
Beovoz in Serbia
In Serbia there since the early 1980s, the Beovoz, which operates in Belgrade on the new lines in the Belgrade railway junction. Currently, the five lines of the Beovoz operated by the Serbian Railways. Integration into the tariff system of public transport of the GSP Beograd is after it has been operated since 2004 by the Serbian Railways planned. In a narrower urban area, the trains of Beovoz run in three 30 km long tunnels.
Cercanías in Spain
In Spain, the S-Bahn trains are called Cercanías. There are eleven cities in nets from one to twelve lines, which are operated respectively by the national railway company RENFE.
In some regions, especially in the Basque Country, Cantabria, Valencian Community and Asturias also S -Bahn -like transport of feve, Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat Valenciana, Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya and EuskoTren exist on narrow gauge, which together with the Cercanías form rapid transit network. In Barcelona six lines are operated by the Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya.
Esko in the Czech Republic
In Greater Prague / Central Bohemia was founded in 2007 with the Esko Prague also an S-Bahn suburban railway system comparable. Since December 2008, is operated as a second network Esko in the Moravian-Silesian Region. In some other regions also started to use a similar numbering of the railway lines, but the " Esko " logo used so far only in the two mentioned regions.
Similar networks in other countries
- Belgium: RER / GEN in Brussels (in preparation)
- Estonia: Elektriraudtee in Tallinn
- Finland: Pääkaupunkiseudun Lähiliikenne in Helsinki
- Republic of Ireland: DART (Dublin Area Rapid Transit) in Dublin
- Netherlands: Different Sprinter trains ( light rail train ) run as an S -Bahn -like system in 15 - minute intervals. There are several expansion plan, for example, Stedenbaan (DE: Cities train).
- Russia, Belarus and Ukraine: elektrichka, (including S -Bahn Kiev)
- Slovakia: Rýchlodráha
- Turkey: Banliyö Trenleri in Istanbul, suburban railways around Ankara, Izmir and Adana in the room / Mersin
- Hungary: HEV ( Helyiérdekű Vasút ) in Budapest
- United Kingdom: Merseyrail in Liverpool, Overground, London, SPT in Glasgow, Centro, Birmingham
- USA: Long Iceland Rail Road, Metro-North Railroad and New Jersey Transit in New York and New Jersey, Metra in Chicago, BART in San Francisco
- Australia: CityRail in Sydney, Metlink in Melbourne
- Quebec: Agence Métropolitaine de Transport in Montreal
- Mexico: Ferrocarril de la Zona Metropolitana Suburbano del Valle de México in Mexico City
- People's Republic of China: KCR in Hong Kong
- Japan: suburban railway systems in Tokyo and Osaka.
- Brazil: CPTM in São Paulo.
- For the Berlin S -Bahn, there is an S- Bahn-Museum by independent agencies. It is located in Potsdam on the grounds of a former suburban railway substation at Griebnitzsee station.
- In the S- Bahn Surfing refers to a dangerous and illegal activity of mostly young males, in this clinging to a dare to the outer wall of a running S-Bahn train.