Salyut 1 was the first space station in the world. Built and developed it was in the Soviet Union.
Start and Configuration
Salyut 1 was launched on April 19, 1971 aboard a Proton rocket. Derived from the Alma's program and made under time pressure, the station consisted essentially of an Alma - shell and modules of the Soyuz spacecraft. Thus, it was the basis for the civilian space station type DOS (Russian ДОС, Долговременная орбитальная станция, Dolgovremennaja orbital well stancija for "long-term orbital station"), which more clearly differed with the progress of the program of the Almas stations. The equipment of the Salyut 1 included, among other things, a solar telescope, a spectrometer, an electric photometer and a TV set. It was also the secret radiometer Swinets on board as well as the UV instrument Orion, could be observed with the missile launch in the world. However, the solar telescope was not operational because a cover on the outside of the space station had not been resolved as intended. The control in space and part of the energy supply was a complete Soyuz service module with solar panels on the rear. At the bow a coupling adapter and another pair of Soyuz solar panels was installed. The total length of the stations was just under 16 feet, the ground around 18.9 tons. Originally, the space station Sarja ( Заря ) should be called, this name was changed shortly before the start, to avoid confusion with the call sign of the ground station.
Mission and crew
Unsuccessful coupling of Soyuz 10
Should be manned and operated the station from the three crew members of the Soyuz 10 mission, which launched on April 22 from Baikonur, and already had experience with rendezvous maneuvers from the Soyuz program. Soyuz 10 docked at the April 24th at the space station, but could not a pressure-tight nor an electrical connection to the Salyut 1 produce. Since the hatches thus could not be opened and alerts the crew mitführte no space suits for exits, the station could not be entered and the crew of Soyuz 10 had to return to Earth.
First crew of a space station: Soyuz 11
The spaceship of the subsequent mission, Soyuz 11, received an enhanced coupling adapter to prevent any recurrence of defect. Was launched on June 6, 1971, just one day later could be made a successful coupling to Salyut 1. After a brief entering the station, the crew retired for the night in the Soyuz spacecraft, as in the station found a burnt smell and a replacement of the station atmosphere was resolved. During the stay on Salyut 1, the cosmonauts conducted various Earth observation and scientific experiments. On 26 June, the planned scientific and technical experiments were completed. The remaining days were physical training in preparation for the return and the preparation of Salyut 1 for the arrival of the next crew. After 23 days aboard the station, the crew docked at 29 June 1971 from with their Soyuz spacecraft and prepared for landing. When avulsion of the orbital module, an air valve opened unexpectedly and the landing capsule lost during reentry their atmosphere, which caused the death of all three astronauts result.
After Soyuz 11
After Soyuz 11 would still have a second, if possible even to live and work in Salyut 1, a third team. Because of the accident, but further manned Soyuz flights were postponed and carried out first unmanned test flights to restore the safety of the Soyuz. Nevertheless, an attempt was made, the station continues to hold in space and the orbit three times, the last time in August even significantly raised. Since the next manned Soyuz mission could take place only two years after the accident, because of delays in the Soyuz program, Salyut 1 could not be manned again.
Salyut 1 was originally designed for a useful life of three months. Nevertheless, the ground control could also use this time also to gather valuable data on fuel consumption, position control and loss of height of the station. Since tended to the end of the fuel supplies, the end of the space station was launched with a lowering of the orbit on September 25. To avoid loss of control option and thus an uncontrolled crash, the command for the final braking maneuver was posted on October 10, 1971 finally. After 175 days in orbit Salyut 1 subsequently went as planned on October 11 over the Pacific Ocean in the Earth's atmosphere and burned up one.