São Paulo (state)
- 22:23 - 48.79Koordinaten: 22 ° S, 49 ° W
The State of São Paulo ( ticker: SP) is a Brazilian State, the most populous and economically most significant of the 27 Brazilian states. The state of São Paulo is located in southeastern Brazil. It has borders with the state of Minas Gerais, in the north and northeast, the State of Rio de Janeiro in the Northeast, the South Atlantic in the east, to the state of Paraná in the south and to the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, in the west. It is divided into 645 municipalities. The capital of the state is called São Paulo Capital. Residents of the state are called paulistas while call the residents of the capital paulistanos.
The coat of arms of the state of São Paulo was designed by the painter Wasth Rodrigues and introduced during the constitutional revolution of 1932, to which the obelisk at the Ibirapuera Park reminded by Governor Pedro Manuel de Toledo by decree. After 1937 it was replaced by other symbols until it was finally established in 1946 finally in the new constitution.
Heraldry: a red Portuguese shield and a sword upright on two crossed branches, right laurel, oak left, the blade, the letters " SP" divisive, all in silver. Above the shield a silver star. The plate supporting two thriving coffee twigs in their colors to the base plate crossed. On a red ribbon in silver letters the motto of the state: "Pro Brasilia Fiant Eximia " ( Lets create great things for Brazil ).
Overall, the state is slightly larger than the United Kingdom, open to the Atlantic Ocean and 622 kilometers of coastline. It comprises two distinct natural regions: the coastal region and the plateau. The coastal region is less pronounced - narrow in the northern section and extra wide to the south, where it is occupied by the Baixada de Ribeira de Iguape. Within the coastal region occur on beaches, mangrove forests, isolated massive terraces, resulting rugged cliffs at the seashore result with relatively flat beaches. Always the mountain silhouette of the Serra do Mar, which limits the Planalto of the hinterland to the sea appears in the background. The area of the State of São Paulo is 248,808 km ², which represents only about three percent of the area of Brazil. The population in 2011 is about 41 million people. This corresponds to about 22 % of the total population of the country. The population density is 150 people per square kilometer. According to a forecast of the Brazilian Statistical Office of the State will have reached to July 2020 had a total population of 47.2 million inhabitants. He will be home to about eight percent of the total population of Latin America.
The capital, São Paulo has around 11 million inhabitants. In the metropolitan area with millions more cities such as Guarulhos, São Bernardo do Campo, Campinas total of over 19 million people live. Since January 2011, Geraldo Alckmin ( PSDB ) for the third time in a row, Governor of the State.
Largest cities (population 1 January 2011)
- São Paulo - 11,253,503
- Guarulhos - 1221979
- Campinas - 1080113
- São Bernardo do Campo - 765 463
- Osasco - 666 740
- Santo André - 676 407
- São José dos Campos - 629 921
- Sorocaba - 586 625
- Ribeirão Preto - 604 682
- Santos - 419.400
- Maua - 417 064
- São José do Rio Preto - 408 258
- Diadema - 386 089
- Carapicuíba - 369 584
- Mogi das Cruzes - 387 779
- Piracicaba - 355 039
- Bauru - 344 258
- Jundiaí - 340 907
- Itaquaquecetuba - 328 345
- São Vicente - 321 474
- Franca - 315 770
- Guarujá - 292 828
- Limeira - 270 223
- Suzano - 264 528
- Taubaté - 263 251
- Barueri - 248 034
- Embu - 234 174
- Praia Grande - 229 542
- Sumaré - 225 307
- Taboão da Serra - 216 914
- Marília - 215 911
- São Carlos - 210 841
- Jacareí - 205 360
- Presidente Prudente - 201 347
- Americana - 197 345
- Araraquara - 194 401
- Itapevi - 190 373
- Hortolândia - 186 726
- Rio Claro - 183 597
- Santa Bárbara d' Oeste - 182 808
- Araçatuba - 177 823
- Indaiatuba - 170 703
- Cotia - 170 296
- Ferraz de Vasconcelos - 166 086
- Francisco Morato - 159 316
- Itapecerica da Serra - 152 283
Economy and Agriculture
35-40 % of industrial production in Brazil come from São Paulo. In addition to the automotive industry and mechanical engineering are found textile industry, chemical industry, food industry, etc. The city of São Paulo is the financial and commercial center of Brazil. The state consumes one-third of the electrical energy in the country. Santos is a major international port for domestic and exports.
The only aircraft manufacturer in South America and manufacturer of regional jets, Embraer has its headquarters in São José dos Campos.
Inside São Paulo fruit, sugar cane, cereals and coffee is grown.
The road network has a total length of 195,026 km, of which 1146 km are federal roads and 18,645 km state highways. 25,306 km are paved. Among the most important road links the Via Anchieta and the Via Imigrantes are ( since 1976), they both connect São Paulo to Santos, Via Anhanguera, it connects the capital with Campinas, the Rodovia Fernão Dias connects the capital with Belo Horizonte, Via Presidente Dutra, connecting the capital to Rio de Janeiro, the Rodovia Castelo Branco, connecting the capital to the west of the state - the link São Paulo - Brasília, connecting São Paulo - Curitiba - Porto Alegre and the connection Santos - Rio de Janeiro ( BR- 101).
The railway network comprises approximately 7200 km. It opens like a fan on the heights of Planalto and strives to São Paulo as a funnel. To the south, towards the coast, running only two of these lines. From the sandy beaches along the Atlantic to the Pedra da Mina ( 2770 m) in the Serra da Mantiqueira São Paulo offers a diverse landscape. The main rivers are the Rio Tietê ( 1130 km ), Rio Paranapanema, Rio Grande, Rio Turvo, Rio de Peixe, Rio Paraíba do Sul and Rio Piracicaba.
Santos is the largest and most important port facility in Brazil. The port of São Sebastião is used especially by tankers in the Brazilian oil company Petrobras. The river ports Presidente Epitácio and Panorama are for the shipment of agricultural products, ores and products of iron foundries of importance.
The main airports are the international São Paulo - Guarulhos airport, Viracopos airport in Campinas with predominantly freight and City Airport São Paulo - Congonhas - in the city of São Paulo, for intra Brazilian traffic as the air bridge in 30 -minute intervals for Rio de Janeiro -Santos Dumont Airport.