The term refers to biting sarcasm, bitter scorn and derision. Sarcasm is latinisiertes Greek noun ( σαρκασμός sarkasmós " the laceration, the biting ridicule ", from Ancient Greek sarkazein " mouthing, lacerate, taunt ," from sarx σάρξ " the ( raw ) meat "). The figure of speech of sarcasm found already in ancient rhetoric (eg, Demosthenes, Cicero) use.
Sarcasm so biting ridicule, can be expressed by direct statement of what is meant or means of irony. For example, in these sentences:
If sarcasm expressed through irony, so with a reverse meaning of the statement, this is often illustrated by a special tone. An example:
In order to recognize irony can - if sarcastic (ie biting mockingly ) or non- sarcastic intended - to different parts of the brain work together. If a person does not understand the social situation ( for example, due to an information processing disorder in the brain as in autism, because of damage to the frontal lobes or due to lack of exercise or intelligence), it can irony - and thus ironic sarcasm - do not identify as such.
Authors find it - not just because of overlap with / demarcation to sarcasm - often hard irony to be labeled as such, so that even a healthy reader often can not be correctly classified. So according to the author led a sarcastic discussion post in an Internet forum to an indictment against him - unless expressly distancing oneself from the statement by marking as irony.
Sarcasm and ridicule
Since the intention of ridicule is itself only known to the scoffer, a distinction from the outside is extremely difficult. Together the concepts is the fact that the attacker has less counterattack surface, as if it would proceed objectively.
Mockery is often more open and clear as sarcasm; the latter is often subtle and ambiguous. Therefore, some sarcasm, for example, criticize a dictatorial regime, without the sender of the sarcastic message ends up in jail.
Sarcasm and irony
Colloquially sarcasm is often regarded as a form of irony or ironic contrast construed serving as a nice variation and sarcasm as the attack, partially defined even as ridicule and attack strictly of irony. However, irony fact is an art, a means of expressing something while sarcasm describes a particular intention of a statement, regardless of linguistic means by which it was formulated. Irony referred to statements that may be formulated as the opposite of what actually is meant; this may be concealing to protect the speaker or reinforce the statement. Sarcasm is a bitter, biting mockery - regardless of how what is meant is expressed, whether directly or indirectly through irony.
The irony is objectively ( Schopenhauer ). It refers by over-or understatement on the other side, where they can apply the humorous double standards of appearances. Sarcasm, however, is one-sided. Its focus the downside is aimed at destruction.
Sarcasm and cynicism
Cynicism is - as opposed to sarcasm - no bitter mockery, but an attitude that rejects central standards and morals and considers ridiculous. So cynicism refers to a character Handsome phenomenon; this can manifest itself in cynicism, which can not always be distinguished from sarcastic remarks. Although the difference between the concepts of sarcasm and cynicism is therefore very meaningful, to do without many speakers of German ( of ignorance ) on it. Those speakers who want to use this difference in meaning, therefore, are faced with the communicative situation that a crucial aspect of their testimony is likely to be misunderstood or not perceived.
Sarcasm and Sardonismus
Sardonismus (in conjunction with laughter) does not denote a derisive or sardonic, but a grim, painful mockery in contrast to the sarcasm.