The Schottenstift (actually: Benedictine Abbey of Our Lady to the Scots ) is a Benedictine monastery in the 1st district of Vienna Innere city, at Freyung 6 It was founded in 1155 when Duke Henry II Jasomirgott called iro - Scottish Benedictine monks to Vienna and since 1625 belongs to the Austrian Benedictine Congregation. The abbey church of the Abbey is the Scots Church.
Iro - Scottish -time
The Decline and Fall of Henry II Jasomirgott, who was not only Margrave of Austria, but also Duke of Bavaria, moved before he was charged with the privilege minus the Duke of Austria in 1156, his residence from Klosterneuburg to Vienna and needed for a monastery. In the Middle Ages the monasteries were not only places of prayer, but above all carriers and guardians of knowledge. A monastery was founded brought the ruler expertise and practical knowledge for its management (eg schools, the competent writer trained ), a library, a hospital, builders, professionals and priests for worship in the new residence. So he called iro -Scottish monks, whom he had met in Regensburg at the St. Jakob monastery, to Vienna.
Henry II secured the monks in the foundation charter explicitly, only to invoke Iro bulkheads ( " Solos elegimus Scottos " ), equipped the new monastery with extensive possessions and privileges and certain the pin to his tomb. At the Foundation endowment included in the Vienna Chapel of St. Ruprecht, St. Peter and St. Mary on the Strand, the chapel of St. Stephen in Krems, the Holy Cross Chapel in Tulln, St. Koloman Chapel in rennet and the parish churches of Pulkau and harrows village. The monks built their monastery still outside the walls of the former Vienna. They also erected a hospice for pilgrims and crusaders on their way to Jerusalem, who often came through Vienna.
The construction of the Scots church was begun in 1155; it was consecrated in 1200. It was the first church to a three-nave Romanesque pillar church with an apse. In 1177 Henry II died Jasomirgott and was buried in the Scots Church.
Already in the middle of the 13th century seem to have used the Pontifikalien the Schottenäbte. A formal presentation of the law to their use dated to the year 1287.
The importance of the Scots for the Viennese court expresses itself, among others, in the frequent testimony of Schottenäbten in ducal charters.. A writing school, there were Schottenstift proven from 1310 also at the University of Vienna, which was founded in 1365, the Scots involved; such as Abbot Donaldus (1380-1392) was her eighth rector.
German speaking Scots Monastery
1418 withdrew Duke Albrecht V in the train of the Melk Reform the Iro - scots, who suffered from a low of monastic discipline and lack of personnel, the monastery and settled in German -speaking Benedictine. The term Scots remained intact. The Abbey of the Scots in the 15th century became an important center of the reform.
During the First Turkish siege mercenaries quartered in a Schottenstift and looted church, library and archive. The time of the Reformation was also the Scots no light; yet the Scots monastery remained steadily and continued to lead a school. In the second half of the 16th century even some Scots Fathers were postulated as abbots in other monasteries. Special importance came in this time, the various domiciled at the Scots church brotherhoods, among which the most important was the Sebastianibruderschaft.
The 17th century was at Schottenstift as in many other places also a time of building activity. From 1638 the Scots church was rebuilt in stages, then one began with the conversion of the Scots courts. In the first courtyard of the coming of Sebastian Wagner Heinrich Jasomirgott Fountain was erected in 1652 with the statue of the founder. This works, and by the second Turkish siege suffered damage to his possessions led to major financial problems of the monastery. To boost agriculture again, that since the 12th century, the Scots belonging Good was re- cultured in Breitenlee; it still forms an important basis for the agriculture of the pen.
1702 the Scots monastery was destroyed by the Turks Hungarian Abbey Telki including the villages Telki, Jeno (now Budajenö ) and Paty incorporated. Until the assignment of the Abbey in 1881 Schottenäbte therefore conducted two mitres in their coat of arms.
Abbot Karl Fetzer (1705-1750) was able to alleviate the financial concerns of the monastery; at the same time he was a great patron of art and science. In 1715 he founded a school where secular students were allowed to visit the philosophical courses; but this had to be already in 1741 disbanded. Abbot Benno Pointner (1765-1807) is to prevent the dissolution of the monastery in Josephinism succeeded. In this context, the incorporation of numerous parishes falls. 1773/74 with a new priory school by Andreas Zach was built on the site of the abandoned cemetery. As it points out in the shape of a chest of drawers, it said in the vernacular soon Schubladkastenhaus. Beginning of the 19th century, the Scots -selling large portions of their possessions in the present districts of Vienna and New Josefstadt, especially in Schottenfeld and width field to make room for the expansion of the local suburbs.
Under Abbot Andreas Wenzel (1807-1831), the Scots College in 1807 by imperial decree founded, now one of the last humanist grammar schools in Austria.
From 1826 to 1832 the Scots courts were remodeled the vast complex of buildings around the pen of Joseph Kornhäusel and demolished the already heavily dilapidated convent building and rebuilt. Among other things, the medieval cloister was destroyed. The emperor stone Brucher Stonemasons received large orders, including for long inaugural stages in the convent building and two lined with floor tiles huge staircases, all of which were made from the smooth polished Kaiserstein with translucent color inclusions. 1858 1825 designed by Peter Nobile Black Madonna statue was erected in the convent garden. In the second court was created in 1874 the dolphin fountain. Abbot Ernest Hauswirth (1881-1901) who restored the Scots Church and partially remodel, a monument in honor of the pen founder Henry II Jasomirgott build on the facade of the church and this patient transfer in the crypt in a new sarcophagus.
Since an arranged since 1924 monastic reform had not been carried out properly, the Abbey of the Scots in 1930, the young monk Hermann Peichl the reigning Abbot Amand Oppitz ( 1913-1930 ) was visitiert, moved to withdraw and appointed Abtkoadjutor. After the formal resignation of his predecessor Peichl 1938 abbot of the Scots pin ( 1938-1966 ). During the Second World War, most young Scots monks were called up for military service. The Scottish Convention had recorded heavy losses during this period. From 1949 to 1966 supervised Fathers of the Scots monastery, the Priory Mariazell. 1960 was Peichl the crypt of the Scots Church remodel. Under his successor, Boniface Sellinger (1966-1988) were uncovered parts of the old Romanesque church building and the guest house of the pen, the Benediktushaus opened. Abbot Heinrich Ferenczy (1988-2006) was very active construction and remodeling activity in church, crypt and gymnasium.
See also: List of abbots of Schottenstift
Many abbots and monks of Schottenstift were outstanding personalities of her time. Abt Donaldus (1380-1392) was the eighth President of the University of Vienna. The first German abbots Nicholas of Respitz (1418-1428), John of Ochsenhausen (1428-1446) and Martin of Leibitz (1446-1461) acted as major players of the Melk Reform movement. Abt Benedictus Chelidonius (1518-1521) was a learned humanist and poet. The abbots Augustin Pitt Erich (1608-1629), Johann Walter Finger (1629-1641) and Johann Schmitz Berger (1669-1683) were all suffragans of Vienna. The abbots Andreas Wenzel (1807-1831) and Sigismund Schultes (1832-1861) were also rectors of the University of Vienna. Politically, the most active was abbot Othmar Helferstorfer (1861-1880), including as District Marshal of Lower Austria. From Abbot Ernest Hauswirth, a historian who still relevant works come to the pen history. Abbot Hermann Peichl was president of the Viennese Catholic Academy, the abbots Boniface Sellinger and Heinrich Ferenczy both first chairman of the Austrian Superior Conference.
Some monks have held the pen functions at the University of Vienna. The philologist Meinrad Lichtsteiner and pastoral theologian Anselm Ricker were rectors of the university. Deans of the Faculty of Catholic Theology were next Ricker also the dogmatists Adrian Gretsch, the orientalist Andreas Leitner top, the philologist Paul Hofmann and church historian Bernhard Wagner and Celestine Wolfsgruber; Dean of the Faculty of Arts was next Lichtsteiner scientists Sigismund Gschwandner. More University teachers in Vienna were the philosopher Vincenz Knauer and finally the Old Testament scholar Georg Braulik. The biblical scholar Frederick Wagl was rector of the University of Graz.
Of the priests who taught at the Scots College, some were also scientifically active. They include the historian Albert Huebl, the philologists Maurus Schinnagl, Heinrich Maschek and Paul Lieger and Germanists Berthold Seng Schmitt, Hugo Mareta and Meinrad Sadil. As a musician Karl Mann and Theodor Pachschmidt obtained Zwettlerstrasse importance. In the pastoral Honorius Kraus, Urban Loritz, Hermann Schubert and Adolf protrude core. With Othmar Helferstorfer, Clemens Kickh and Celestine Wolfsgruber the Schottenstift also presented its over 70 years the court preacher at the Vienna court orchestra. Politically active as a Viennese municipal councils were the pin priors Edmund Goetz and Stephan Fellner.
But not only in the monastery itself, even in its environment, there are significant personalities. In the mid-16th century falls the literary activity of the Scots schoolmaster Wolfgang Schmeltzl, his successor was Johann Rasch. In 1700 was the great Baroque musician Johann Joseph Fux organist, the same function held Johann Baptist Henneberg. As choirmaster of Schottenstift later Kapellmeister Joseph Ignaz von Eybler and Assmayer served.
Today incorporated the Schottenstift are next to the pin parish, the parishes of St. Ulrich, Breitenlee, Enzersfeld, Small Engersdorf, Gaweinstal, Höbersbrunn, Schottenfeld, Stammersdorf, Grossenzersdorf im Thale and harrows village in the valley; not all of them but maintained pastoral of Scots Fathers. No longer the Scots monastery includes the parishes Gumpendorf, rennet, Martin village, Platt, Pulkau, Waitzendorf, Watzelsdorf and Zeller village.
Museum at Schottenstift
The former prelate of Schottenstift now houses the Museum at Schottenstift in which pieces from the different collections of the abbey are issued ( paintings, furniture, tapestries, vestments and liturgical instruments, manuscripts and prints).
The main attraction is the Wiener Scots altar, a so-called Master of the Schotten Altar Vienna created from 1469 triptych, which should have served to the 17th century high altar of the Scots Church. This is not only an important work of art of the late Gothic period in Austria, but because of its detailed and topographically correct city views of Vienna and Krems as background scenery also an important historical source image.
Focus of the collection of paintings lie on the Flemish, Dutch and Austrian paintings from the 16th, 17th and 18th century as well as on the Vienna Biedermeier painting. On show will be religious paintings (Peter Paul Rubens, Joachim Beuckelaer, Marten de Vos, Orazio Samacchini, Jan Cossiers, Tobias Pock, Johann Spillenberger, Johann Heiss, Peter Strudel, Giovanni Battista Pittoni, Franz Christoph Janneck, Franz Anton Maulbertsch, Franz Josef Dobiaschofsky ) portraits ( Christopher Paudiß, Christian Seybold ), Landscapes ( Gillis van Coninxloo, Joos de Momper, Maximilian Joseph Schinnagl, Christian Hilfgott fire, Johann Leonhard Herrlein, Albert Christoph Dies, Jakob Alt, Thomas Ender, Luigi Bisi ), Still Life ( Cars Tian Luyckx, Alexander Coosemans, Nicolaes van Verendael, Franz Werner Tamm, Philip of Purgau, Johann Baptist Drechsler Johann Knapp) and genre painting (Simon de Vos, Cornelis Bega, Egbert van Heemskerk, Jan van der Bent, Adriaen de Gryeff, Jan Pieter van Bredael, Johann Peter Krafft ). In Prälatensaal the former Baroque high altar Heavenly Glory ( 1671) by Joachim von Sandrart can be seen.
To visit addition, a documentation of the history of pin and pin parishes as well as a natural history cabinet. Exclusively in the context of guided tours available is the built according to plans by Joseph Kornhäusels classical library of the monastery.
Naming of streets
In Vienna and some streets, alleys, squares, and also parts of the district after the Schottenstift and individual abbots and monks were named: Schottenbastei, Schottengasse, Scots ring Schottentor, Schottenviertel, Freyung and Helferstorferstraße (formerly Scottish climbing ) in the inner city; Schottenfeld Schottenfeldgasse, Hermanngasse, Sigmundsgasse, Spindler alley (now Döblergasse ), Urban- Loritz Square and jitter Hofergasse on the new building; Neuschottengasse (now part of Piaristengasse ) Schottentorgasse (now Florianigasse ) Bennogasse and Bennoplatz in der Josefstadt; Scots Point, Schottenberg or Schottenbühel (now Mountain Street), New Schottenau and Scots cemetery on Alsergrund; Schottenwald and Schottenhof in Penzing; On the Scots meadow and Schottenhof ( Ottakringerstraße Freihofstraße ) in Ottakring; Wolfsgruber alley in Dobling; and Schottenau and Scots Austraße in Brigittenau.
On 7 October 1994, the Austrian Post ran a Definitive Stamp series artworks from convents and monasteries in Austria with the Scots Madonna out as a motive in the amount of 30.00 shillings. Already on 28 November 1975 Christmas stamp was the Vienna Scots altar appeared with a cutout of the panel Nativity as a motif of 2,00 shillings.