• LSDP 38
  • TS- LKD 33
  • DP 29
  • TT 11
  • LRLS 10
  • LLRA 8
  • DK 7
  • Independent 3
  • LVŽS 1

The Seimas is the Lithuanian Parliament. The name is derived from the Polish " Sejm " and dates from the time of the Polish-Lithuanian Rzeczpospolita. He called the highest law -making body of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In Lithuania, the unicameral applies.


Elections for the Seimas find every four years, to stand for election, Lithuanian citizens who, are serving 25 years or older is no penalty and not another State bound by oath or promise (Art. 54 and 55, lit. Constitution ). 71 seats are allocated as direct mandates by the election in constituencies, the remaining 70 of the best lined up candidates on the proposed lists of the parties, according to their national pro rata share of the votes cast. It is a five-percent hurdle Connections list must achieve 7 % in order to be represented in the Seimas.


The Constitution puts a spring and an autumn session established, the last from 10 March to 30 June and from 10 September to 23 December (Article 64, lit. Constitution ). These sessions can be extended if necessary ( as happened in the case of the impeachment of President Rolandas Paksas ). Extraordinary meetings may be convened, the right to have the Chairman of the Seimas and the President.


Tasks of the Seimas are:

  • Discussion and resolution of constitutional amendments ( 3/5-Mehrheit all deputies ) and laws (simple majority of all members present )
  • Adoption and oversight of the state budget
  • Control of the government
  • Heading of referendums
  • Heading of presidential and local elections
  • Confirmation of the proposed by the president candidates for the office of the Prime Minister
  • Confirmation of the government program presented by the Prime Minister
  • Formation and organization of the institutions of government
  • Appointment of the Supreme Judge, of the Auditor and the Chairman of the National Bank as well director of state institutions


The Seimas has existed since 1992 ( again) from a chamber of 141 deputies. The selected last modified on 14 and 28 October 2012 Parliamentary broken down as follows:


Constituent Assembly 1920-1922

The first Parliament of the Republic of Lithuania was determined in April 1920 as a Constituent Assembly through free and fair elections. Entitled to vote were men and women. They determined 149 representatives of the people, the Christian Democrats with 59 seats represented the largest fraction, before the Agrarian Party with 28 seats. The Constituent Assembly met for the first time on May 15, 1920 in Kaunas together. The actual capital Vilnius was then occupied Polish. The first president of the assembly elected Aleksandra Stulginskis. The most important laws were the explanation of the restoration of Lithuanian independence (15 May 1920), the adoption of the land reform (3 April 1922), the adoption of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania (1 August 1922) and the introduction of its own national currency, the litas, in 1922. During his term until October 1922, the Constituent Assembly adopted a total of about 150 laws.

Seimas 1922-1926

On 11 and 16 October 1922, the Seimas of the first independent Lithuania was elected. legal basis was the constitution of 1 August 1922. had the right to choose men and women with a minimum age of 24 years. The 78 members were elected in six constituencies ( Marijampolė, Kaunas, Raseiniai Telšiai, Panevėžys and Utena ).

After the government was no majority in Parliament, 1923 elections were scheduled for May 12 and 13. Until the next regular election in May 1926 now ruled the right-wing parties (Christian Democrats, Peasant Party ) Lithuania with a relatively stable majority in parliament.

Authoritarian government and resolution of the Seimas 1926-1936

For elections to the III. Seimas on 8 - 10th May 1926 was caused by connecting the Memel still a seventh constituency " Memel " was formed. The number of MPs increased to 85

The elections in May 1926 brought a majority left of center with the participation of social democrats and numerous legislative changes ( abolition of censorship, abolition of martial law, legalization of the Communist Party ), who were a thorn in the national-conservative circles. In a coup, the representatives of the conservative parties appointed a new president, Antanas Smetona and formed a new government. When the Seimas of this government expressed his distrust, adjourned President Smetona the Parliament on 17 December 1926, dissolved it on April 12, 1927 - without calling new elections, as it would have required the constitution.

Puppet " parliaments " 1936-1940

By the year 1936 Smetona reigned under the dissolution of parliament and the election on 9 and June 10, 1936 there were no free elections, as per constituency ( the constituencies now complied with the administrative districts) only one candidate has been nominated, who was previously nominated by the district administrations had been. Overall, this Seimas consisted of 49 deputies. They only had the right to vote on constitutional amendments ( as on the new constitution of 1938), legislation, ratification of international treaties and the budget design were in the hands of the President Smetona. This Seimas was dissolved on 27 June 1940 by the occupying power ( Soviet Government ). They instead convened elections for a so-called "People's Seimas " to. Their members could not be chosen freely, but were as been previously nominated in 1936 as the sole candidate. The primary purpose of this organ was the " accession " of Lithuania to the Soviet Union in August 1940. Subsequently, the "People's Seimas " was converted to the Supreme Soviet of the Socialist Republic of Lithuania.

Supreme Soviet ( Restituierender Seimas ) 1990-1992

Among the regular elections to the Supreme Soviet in 1990 other parties were allowed in addition to the Communist Party of Lithuania for the first time. The independence movement " Sąjūdis " reached 96 of the 141 seats in free and fair elections in February 1990. At the first meeting on 11 March 1990, the Supreme Soviet adopted with 124 votes and 6 abstentions and no votes against the statement that Lithuania was independent again, the Constitution of 1938 is the only valid on the territory of Lithuania constitution in force again and the Supreme the sovereign body of Lithuanian Soviet state violence is. , Is elected Speaker of Parliament on the same day the leader of the " Sąjūdis ", Vytautas Landsbergis, declared the new head of state.

On this basis, the Law on the Lithuanian government was adopted on 22 March 1990, after which a new Lithuanian government under Prime Minister Casimire PRUNSKIENE was appointed on 24 March 1990. By the end of his tenure was the primary work of the Supreme Council - Restituierenden Seimas, as he was now called, the drafting of a new Constitution (adopted on 25 October 1992) and a Code of the Republic of Lithuania (adopted on 6 November 1992 ).

Seimas 1992-2012

After the Supreme Soviet had adopted the new electoral law in July 1992, the first parliamentary elections in the newly independent Lithuania was held in October / November 1992. Since then, the Seimas has led five election periods regular end. Early elections could be avoided if the majority ownership changed several times during a term of office.