Senatorial province

As a senatorial province of modern research traditionally referred to a Roman province, which had stood under the control of the Senate, at least formally in the Imperial period. In theory, sovereignty was, however, the Roman people; the provinces were therefore in ancient times as " public Provinces" ( provinciae publicae ) or " provinces of the Roman people " ( provinciae populi Romani ) refers, in contrast to the provinces, Augustus directly to the emperor stood ( " imperial provinces ," provinciae Caesar ) were and managed by legati Augusti.

The Senate determined, usually by lot, even if he had not been still consul, praetor, but only the governors of the provinces, who bore the title of proconsul for one year. Only the rich provinces of Asia and Africa received a former consul as governor. You got each a quaestor and legate ( in Asia and Africa more ) to the side. The governorship in the two consular provinces was considered the crowning of a senatorial career.

The " senatorial " provinces were generally the interior provinces of the Mediterranean. Except for the province of Africa, there was in them no Legion troops, but only weak auxiliary troops. Shortly after the start of the autocracy of Augustus in 27 BC the Roman provinces were divided into public and imperial provinces. By the princeps of the Senate, leaving the direction of the pacified territories and so his claim underlined to have the res publica renewed, he kept along with the vulnerable provinces also in command of about nine-tenths of the army, as already ancient authors such as Cassius Dio correctly recognized.

At Augustus ' death in 14 there were the following provinciae publicae:

  • Achaea ( 15-44 with Moesia and Macedonia together as an imperial province )
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • Creta et Cyrene
  • Cyprus
  • Gallia Narbonensis
  • Hispania Baetica
  • Macedonia ( 15-44 with Achaea and Moesia together as an imperial province )
  • Bithynia et Pontus
  • Sicilia

The number of ten provinces is that of the coming into question as governors former magistrates each year ( two consuls and praetors eight ).

For a brief period from 66/67 AD belonged to replace the temporary Nero released from the Province of Achaea (Greece ), the province of Sardinia et Corsica to the provinciae publicae. From the year 165 Lycia et Pamphylia was also a provincia populi Romani.