The Tribe Senecioneae belongs to the subfamily herbaceous within the sunflower family ( Asteraceae). It contains about 150 plant genera with about 3200 species, making it one of the richest tribe of the Asteraceae. About one- third of the species belong to the genus Greis herbs ( Senecio ), one of the most species-rich genera (now with about 1000 species, the spin-off of genera there were up to 3000 species, divided into about 125 sections) is the flowering plant.
- 3.1 Alphabetical, complete genus list and dissemination
- 5.1 Notes and references
There are usually one- or two-year perennial herbaceous plants, rarely there are woody plants: subshrubs, shrubs or trees. Some species are xerophytes, few species are climbing plants and a special feature are the crested tree species. The mostly alternate, sometimes in rosettes, often against constantly arranged leaves are petiolate or sessile, usually with simple to lobed to deeply - divided leaf blade.
Often in branched, doldentraubigen, racemose inflorescences total stand together the basket- shaped part inflorescences, in some species they are individually. The sessile or stalked flower heads are spherical to disc-shaped. Few to many of the same multiform bracts are in one or two, rarely more rows; they may be free or fused and enclose the flower heads. Often, a few are much smaller and mostly at margins located at the base of the bracts bracts present; they usually have a necrotic tip. The flat to elevated, rarely conical inflorescence soil is usually naked or honeycombed. In the basket- shaped inflorescence are radiärsymmetrische tubular flowers, called disc florets and ray florets zygomorphe on the edge, so-called ray florets.
The ray florets are female pen with two branches. The four - or five-fold tubular flowers are hermaphrodite, or functionally male. Their petals are Roehrig, funnel - to bell-shaped fused with four or five Kronlappen. There are four or five stamens with straight staminal tube. The pen has two pen branches available and sometimes hairy appendages.
The cylindrical, triangular to ellipsoid - oblong or sometimes flattened achenes are ribbed or smooth, glabrous or hairy. In this tribe is usually a pappus present; it consists of a few to many white or colored Pappusborsten in one or more rows, often made of fine, soft hairs; it can be white or a different color and durable or transient.
The Tribe Senecioneae has an almost worldwide distribution. Man thought to have originated in summer-dry habitats of the late Tertiary. This explains well that the centers of distribution of Senecioneae today lies in Mediterranean climates. It is one of the few groups of plants of the species are found in all five areas of the world with Mediterranean climate: the Mediterranean, the California floristic province, in central Chile, in the capensis and in southwestern Australia. The subtribe Othonninae and Senecioninae have their origin both in sub-Saharan Africa. Senecio is the only genus of the tribe, which appears in all five areas with a Mediterranean climate. But the taxa of the tribe Senecioneae have spread in the boreal, cool temperate or tropical climates. The colonization of so many different habitats led to a variety of morphological adaptations.
Here are some examples of areas of the world with numbers of occurring genera and species: In North America, about 29 genera occur with about 167 species. In China, about 22 genera occur with about 261 species. In Brazil, eight genre come with 97 species before, for example, in the Brazilian state of Bahia are five genera and only twelve species native: Hoehneophytum ( three species), Emilia ( three species), Erechtites ( three species), Pseudogynoxys ( sort of) and Senecio ( three types ). On the island of Hispaniola, there are a total of seven genera and 27 species: Senecio (16 species), Erechtites (two species), Emilia ( three species), Pseudogynoxys ( sort of) and there endemic genera Herodotia ( three species), Mattfeldia ( a type ) and Ignurbia ( sort of).
As a first publication of the Tribusnamens Senecioneae applies Alexandre Henri Gabriel de Cassini: Journal de Physique, de Chimie et d' Histoire Naturelle des Arts, 88, 1819, p 196 The Tribe Senecioneae Cass. contains about 150 genera and 3200 species. It is to this day ten ( Pieter B. Pelser et al 2007. ) Subtribe divided into seven earlier. Adenostylinae, Blennospermatinae, Tephroseridinae C.Jeffrey & YLChen, Abrotanellinae, Othonninae, Senecioninae ( Cass. ) Dum, Tussilagininae ( Cass. ) Dum, and newly separated from Tussilagininae. Brachyglottidinae, Chersodominae and Doronicinae.
Alphabetical, full species list and distribution
- Abrotanella Cass.
- Acrisione B.Nord.
- Alpendost ( Adenostyles Cass. ): The approximately four species are widespread in Europe.
- Equatorium B.Nord.
- Aetheolaena Cass.
- Angeldiazia Modillon & Zapata: it contains only one type: Angeldiazia weigendii Modillon & Zapata: It occurs in the Peruvian department of Cajamarca, Piura and Lambeyeque.
- Barkleyanthus salicifolius ( Kunth ) H.Rob. & Brettell: It is native to the southwestern United States, Mexico and Central America.
- Cacaliopsis nardosmia ( A. Gray ) A. Gray: It is native to western North America.
- Cadiscus aquaticus: It is endemic to the Western Cape.
- Caxamarca sanchezii Modillon & Sagast. Homeland is the northern Peru.
- Crocidium multicaule Hook:. It is native to western North America.
- Dauresia alliariifolia ( O.Hoffm. ) B.Nord. & Pelser: The home is the capensis.
- Delairea odorata: Only in the course capensis home, but for example, in North America and Australia a neophyte.
- Dicercoclados triplinervis C.Jeffrey & YLChen: It occurs only in Guizhou.
- Orange Red Emilie (Emilia coccinea ( Sims ) G.Don )
- Herreranthus rivalis ( Greenm. ) B.Nord. It is a shrub or small tree in Cuba.
- Ignurbia constanzae ( Urb. ) B.Nord. Homeland is the island of Hispaniola.
- Lamprocephalus montanus: It is endemic to the Western Cape.
- Leonis trineura ( Griseb. ) B.Nord. It occurs in Cuba and Hispaniola.
- Ligulariopsis shichuana YLChen: It occurs only in Shaanxi and Gansu.
- Lundinia plumbea ( Griseb. ) B.Nord: It is a shrub or tree in Cuba.
- Mesogramma apiifolium DC. , The home is the capensis.
- Oligothrix gracilis: It is endemic to the Western Cape.
- Phaneroglossa bolusii: It is endemic to the Northern and Western Cape.
- Rainiera stricta (Greene) Greene: It is native to the northwestern United States.
- Rugelia nudicaulis Shuttleworth ex Chapman: It is native to the southeastern United States.
- Tagetesähnliches cup basket ( Steirodiscus Tagetes )
- Stilpnogyne bellidioides: It is endemic to the Western Cape.
- Pre-Alpine ash herb ( Tephroseris longifolia)
- Coltsfoot ( Tussilago farfara L.): It is widely distributed in the temperate regions of Eurasia and North Africa.
- Yermo xanthocephalus Dorn: It is endemic in Wyoming.
- Zemisia discolor ( Sw. ) B.Nord. It is endemic to Jamaica.
There are some species whose varieties are used as ornamental plants, examples: doronicum, Euryops, Farfugium, Kleinia, Ligularia, Parasenecio, Pericallis, Senecio, Sinacalia, Steirodiscus. Some types of the medical effects were investigated Examples: Coltsfoot ( Tussilago farfara ) Pestwurzen ( Petasites ), Parasenecio, Ligularia and Gynura.
- Theodore M. Barkley, Luc Brouillet & John L. Strother: Asteraceae in the Flora of North America, Volume 20, 2006: Tribe Senecioneae. - Registered as text printed work, In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee ( eds.): Flora of North America North of Mexico, Volume 20 - Magnoliophyta: . Unranked, part 7: Asteraceae, part 2 ( Astereae, Senecioneae ). Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford, 2006. ISBN 0-19-530564-7 (Section Description and systematics)
- Yilin Chen, Shangwu Liu, Ying Liu, Qiner Yang, Bertil Nordenstam, Irina D. Illarionova, Charles Jeffrey, Hiroshige Koyama & Leszek Vincent: Tribe Senecioneae. S. 371-496 - text Registered as printed work, In: Wu Zheng -yi, Peter H. Raven & Deyuan Hong (eds.): Flora of China, Volume 20 - Asteraceae, Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing and St. Louis, 2011. ISBN 978-1-935641-07-0 (Sections Description and systematics)
- Jose L. Panero & Victoria Ann Funk: The value of sampling anomalous taxa in phylogenetic studies: Major clades of the Asteraceae revealed, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 47, Issue 2, 2008, pp. 757-782. PDF file. ( Section systematics and distribution )
- Bertil Nordenstam: Tribe Senecioneae, pp. 208-241, in: Joachim W. Kadereit & Charles Jeffrey: The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, Volume VIII, Springer- Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
- Pieter B. Pelser, Bertil Nordenstam, Joachim W. Kadereit & Linda E. Watson: An ITS phylogeny of tribe Senecioneae ( Asteraceae) and a new delimitation of Senecio L., in the taxon, Volume 56, Number 4, 2007, pp. 1077 -1104. ( Section systematics)
- Pieter B. Pelser, AH Kennedy, EJ Tepe, Bertil Nordenstam, Joachim W. Kadereit & Linda E. Watson: Ancient reticulation characterizes the evolutionary history of tribe Senecioneae ( Asteraceae), In: . Botany, 2008, Vancouver, Canada.
- Bertil Nordenstam, Pieter B. Pelser, Joachim W. Kadereit & Linda E. Watson: Chapter 34, Senecioneae, pp. 503-525, In: Victoria Ann Funk, A. Susanna, TF Stuessy & RJ Bayer ( Editor): Systematics, Evolution, and Biogeography of Compositae, International Association for Plant Taxonomy: Vienna, 2009.
- Tribe Senecioneae in southern Africa. the Biodiversity Explorer of Iziko Museums of Cape Town. ( Section systematics)
- Senecioneae at The Euro Med Plant Base - the information resource for Euro - Mediterranean plant diversity.
- Bertil Nordenstam: Compositae Newsletter, Number 44, 2006 - PDF Online.