Service economy

The term services company aimed at the social structural change which has taken place starting in all Western industrialized countries in the 1970s in different ways. In fact, it is a euphemism for the degradation of infrastructure in the mining industry, less a general de - industrialization. In sum, the change is associated with a significant decrease in the number of jobs.

First shifted in the basic industry production volumes in many countries with more favorable extraction methods for coal and ores, petroleum and natural gas. Then stayed in the manufacturing sector due to automation and productivity steady job and at the same time could the demand for industrial products are becoming cheaper satisfied by transport of new producers to the consumers, so that the service sector ( in terms of the three-sector hypothesis of Jean Fourastié ) on the one hand could bind more and more workers and on the other hand more and more purchasing power per se.

The process of converting an industrial society to a service society is called the tertiary sector.

In addition to the altered material foundations also a change in social values ​​and norms is connected to a service economy.

Causes of Tertiarization

A number of hypotheses attempt the phenomenon of Tertiarization justified. For this purpose, inter alia, include outsourcing thesis and the interaction hypothesis. In fact, the structure of demand in society is not transformed, but through casualization, the proportion of persons with low income and the earlier full employment ends.

Due to the increase in productivity in the first two sectors workers were free and the service sector served as a " catch basin " for the redundant workers. In addition, companies separate in the context of outsourcing activities that are not part of the core competencies and buy those services from specialized providers of business services a. Examples: maintenance, IT, security.

There is a remarkable private, effective demand for services, under certain circumstances exacerbated by the changes in living conditions (declining working hours leads to demand for things to do ) and in the population structure.

In addition, there are at constant need in the planning and execution of the production of goods increased demand for services in the storage and distribution of goods within the manufacturing industry and to consumers. One speaks in this context of an industrial service company in the industrialized countries.

One consequence is the growing complexity of social and economic systems. Prerequisite for adjusting the general spread of modern information technology and faster communication paths. This increases the need for mediation and control, however, the scheme of the legislation and the required capitalization is not to the same extent after. Overall, the development thus leads to further increased division of labor. At the same time there is increased bureaucratization of society. In addition, take the losses to bankruptcies and by fluctuations in demand. The requirements for more flexible methods of management and the organizational forms evolve only slowly.

Development in Germany

Taking the employment in the sectors of the economy or the share of the sectors to the GNP (Gross National Product ) as a measure of, it can be concluded that Germany until the 70 of the 20th century was an industrial society until the late 19th century an agrarian society. In this reading, then overtook the expansive tertiary sector in the 1970s, the secondary sector and one can speak of a service society since in the Federal Republic of Germany.

If one interprets the classical three-sector theory of the demand side and considering the effect on consumption classic personal services (tertiary products ) such as However, hairdresser, concert or restaurant / café visits and the use of cleaning or restoration service, one can come to different conclusions. How have demonstrated for the UK and Boris Loheide for Germany Jonathan Gershuny, this consumption has not increased appreciably contrary to expectations, at least in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Instead, people bought more and more products of the secondary sector with which such services will be replaced or they can provide themselves, such as Washing machine, home cinema or espresso machines. At the same time, many companies roll services from the consumer by letting him be his food or coffee myself at the counter to pick up ( food service ), his own money draw ( ATM ) or to its furniture itself assemble ( Ikea). As a result, we live in a less service than in a self-service society.

The GDR had at the time of the wall case ( 1989) the same socio-economic structure as the Federal Republic of Germany to 1965. The causes for this are the low productivity and the neglect of the service sector by the socialist economic planning. There were employed in the first two sectors, too many people. The use and scope of work of services is difficult to plan in advance. After the reunification of the new federal states have quickly grown to become a service economy.

Follow Tertiarisation

Overall labor market: The occupations with the highest employment growth rates are about: office staff, nursing and data processing professionals. The demands on the workers rise, especially in the field of technical and substantive skills and social skills (eg teamwork and self-reliance ).

The centuries significant layer of the farmers lost more and more important. Today they are in the EU with less than 1 percent of total labor force a negligible size. The farmers have substantial assets, but their financial situation is often very tense. With an average working week of 59 hours, the average net household income per capita is even lower than that of a worker.

Since the industrial revolution in the 18th century, the working class was a dominant layer until they were late 70s ( 20th century) replaced by the officials and employees. In the wake of the economic miracle the numerically shrinking workforce has risen socially. It reached a higher standard of living and a better social protection, but their heavy physical burden remained.

Children from working class families still have less access to education and the working-class background keeps to itself. People who belong to the working class in general have a lower social standing. The risk of becoming unemployed is higher for people from this social class.

Employees and officials: Today, the largest group in the middle of the company is the employees. This social layer occurs at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century in appearance for the first time. To date, the proportion of the labor force has risen to 50 percent.

One can divide their activities into three classic areas: Commercial and technical activities and office and administrative activities. Many employees are also utilized in the occupational fields of transport, communications and information. Most of the staff can be found in the tertiary sector. Since the tertiary sector of the secondary sector, there is also an increasing number of employees in the industry.

The typical occupations of the service economy are considered to be resistant to rationalization, as it often depends on the quality of work of their quantity.