Seti I

Seti I (c. 1323 BC; † 1279 BC) was an Egyptian King (Pharaoh) during the New Kingdom and the second ruler of the 19th Dynasty, which ruled from 1290 to 1279 BC. He was the son and co-regent of Ramses I and father of Ramses II, whom he made to his co-regent, even at the age of fifteen.


  • Parents: Ramses I and Satre
  • Wife and Great Royal Wife: Tuya
  • Sons: Nebenchasetnebet and Ramses II
  • Daughters: Tia

Henutmire, kept for his own daughter was long, probably a raised to the great royal wife, daughter of Ramses II

For proper names

The origin of the family of Seti I is not yet clear, but directs his own name in Lower Egypt, as in Upper Egypt, particularly in Abydos, the deity Seth was outlawed as Osiris - killer. Ramses II referred in one of his memorials to the men of his father Seti I, who bore the name Seth family as well as the mythological role of Avaris region and the local Seth - worship.

For its proper names should complement the activities of the family of Seti I. be responsible. Under Horemheb Seti I led, like his father Ramses I. entrusted, among others, the title of colonel and was in this capacity with military tasks. Upon his accession to the throne he called because of the Osiris myth the deity Amun- Re, the father, the powers of fate led to its command him on the throne.

Seti I avoided to explain the deity Seth as his personal patron god. As a lover of Isis and Osiris in tribute to he used mostly outside of Lower Egypt and in his grave for his own name another case.


Seti I called his first year of reign " rebirth of Egypt ". He was referring to with this formulation to the " rule of life of sin" ( Akhenaten to Tutankhamun ), but without mentioning his predecessor by name. The exact date of the coronation of Seti I is missing, but can be narrowed down to the period between the 29th and 17th Peret IV Schemu I, since for Ramses I is recorded on a memorial stone of the 20th Peret II in its second year of reign. The inscriptions on a stele from Karnak from 1 Achet II ( July 30, 1290 BC) mention the coronation rites of Seti I in Heliopolis. In Egyptology is therefore presumed that Seti I was crowned during the celebration of Amun -Re - feast, as the associated ceremonies with the new moon of the first month Schemu began in March.

Immediately after his coronation led Seti I in May (third Schemu - month) a campaign against Retjenu to secure its trade routes and captured, among other things, the city Bet Shean. After his return, " with much booty from Retjenu " did Seti I in Memphis on 30 Schemu IV ( June 24, 1290 BC ) on the occasion of the birthday of the deity Re - Harachte victories offerings;

In the third to fifth year of his reign, he led his army against Syria after it in the north of the country to confront the Hittites, whose influence reached as far as northern Syria, arrived. The Hittite vassal state of Amurru, the city of Kadesh and Fenchu ​​could be taken by the Egyptians. This is evidenced by a built by Seti I. victory stele in Kadesh, and an inscription from Abydos for a memorial temple of Ramses I..

In his eighth year of the reign a rebellion in Nubia took place, he reflected within a week. Also, it came to fighting against Libyan tribes that threatened Memphis.

Important officials of his reign were the vizier Nebamun and the Treasurer Hormin.

Construction activity and King List

Seti I built a huge temple complex at Abydos. The Mortuary Temple of Seti I is still very well preserved. Here is the important King List of Abydos, which is called a total of 76 cartridges with the name of his predecessor. However, this list is incomplete, because it leads the Egyptian kings, the Damnatio Memoriae fell victim not to. Just a few steps away is a chapel for the king cult.

In addition to the mortuary temple of Seti I ( Abydos ), he also left the mortuary temple at Thebes build, both temples were built as a million years houses. Another outstanding Works is the Hypostyle Hall at Karnak Temple at Karnak, which falls under his direction also.

On the occasion of honoring his father Ramses I. Seti I had north leave his temple district in Abydos build a chapel with its own perimeter. In the courtyard of the chapel he had also set up a memorial stone. Ramses II later put north at the same level to his temple.

In the ninth year of the reign of Seti I. celebrated on 20 Schemu I in Kanai, about 50 km east of Edfu, the dedication of his temple beside a fountain station, which he donated to the deity Amun -Re.

400 years stele

The last archaeological dates from the 11th year of reign around 1280 BC and called the 400th anniversary of the reconstruction of the Temple of Set. The cult of Seth was among the Hyksos, who carried out an identification of Seth with the Semitic Baal. The reconstruction and enlargement of the temple at Avaris suppressed the worship of against the brother of Osiris. The ceremony was still held under Horemheb and the anniversary is dated to the 4th Schemu IV in the Egyptian calendar.

His grave

→ Main article: KV17

Seti I died on 26 Schemu III ( May 18, 1279 BC). His real king grave is located in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes and was discovered in October 1817 by Giovanni Battista Belzoni. The grave KV17 is one of the largest and most beautiful tombs in the Valley of the Kings. However, the tourist rush of the following decades hurt the colorful reliefs, so that the grave was closed in 1978 for the public and to this day is no longer accessible.

However, the explorer Giovanni Battista Belzoni and his artist Ricci copied the entire wall paintings so precise that an attempt is made on the basis of these templates today, to restore the destroyed grave walls again. As a most valuable find of the Sethosgrabes applies the ornate sarcophagus of alabaster, which was brought from Belzoni to London. He is now on display at the local Sir John Soane 's Museum in Lincoln 's Inn Fields.

The mummy of Seti I. no longer was the time of the discovery of the tomb, however, in her sarcophagus. It was 1881, well preserved grave of the high priest Pinudjem II discovered along with mummies of the most famous pharaohs of ancient Egypt in the Deir el- Bahari.