The Iranian city of Shiraz ( Shiraz Persian شيراز, DMG Siraz ) is the capital of the southern province of Fars and central part with approximately 1.5 million residents of the five largest cities of Iran.
It is located about 700 km south of Tehran in the southern Zagros Mountains to about 1500 m above sea level. NN. The climate is relatively pleasant and mild. One calls the famous for their garden city of culture the " garden of Iran ". Your wealth of flowers and the famous rose varieties give her a specific character, which already stands out on the way up through the outer archway.
The earliest reference to the city can be found at Elamite writing tablets from 2000 BC, which were found in June 1970 during construction work in Shiraz. On these clay tablets, which are written in Elamite language, is the name of the city as Tiraziš. specified. The Old Persian form was / širājiš / and was sound shifts to New Persian Shiraz.
The area surrounding the town was the heartland of Achaemenid Persia more than 2500 years ago.
Two powerful ancient Persian royal houses originate from here: the ancient Achaemenid Empire ( 559-330 BC) and the Sassanid ( 224-651 ). The octagonal pavilion of the Pars Museum describes the region and its dynasties.
But even before the arrival of the Persians in the Persis existed the city. The clay tablets have been found in Shiraz, lead to the assumption that the city is Elamite origin. However, Urban size, economic and political importance The city obtained under the Persians. Clay tablets from the administrative file of Persepolis from the time of Darius the Great Shiraz mention several times, the city is said to have housed a royal treasure house. After the fall of the Persian Empire of the Achaemenids and the destruction of Persepolis by Alexander, Shiraz took over the role of the cultural center of the Persians.
In the Middle Ages resided in Shiraz, among others, the Islamic dynasties of the Buyids and Salghuriden, under which the city grew and blossomed, but also repeatedly been the scene of military clashes. Later decimated Mongolian, Turkish and Afghan cases the size and population of Shiraz '. Only under Karim Khan Zand, the city was able to recover and experienced a period of prosperity, especially in the economy and culture. On 20 June 1824, the city was destroyed by an earthquake. Shiraz has been officially declared the Cultural Capital of Iran. 1967-1977 the Shiraz Art Festival was held.
In Shiraz, the two most famous poets of Persia are buried in graceful mausoleum on the outskirts: Hafiz ( 1320-1398 ) and Saadi ( 1184-1282 ). Besides the two also worked Omar Khayyam.
Very important is the mosque with the shrine of Shah Cheragh, the brother of the eighth Imam Reza.
Another attraction is the citadel of Karim Khan. It was completed around the year 1770. It is located in the city center and served as a government palace and a residential palace, and later as a mausoleum.
Additional points of interest:
- Bazaar -e Vakil (Bazaar )
- Bāgh -e Eram ( Garden )
- Bāgh Afif - Ābād ( Garden )
- Bagh -e Naranjestan ( Orange Garden )
Universities and research institutions
- University of Shiraz
- Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
- Islamic Azad University of Shirāz
- Islamic Azad University of Marvdasht
- Shiraz University of Technology
- Shiraz University of Applied Science and Technology
- Shiraz Regional Library of Science and Technology
Sons and daughters of the town
- Firouz Naderi, American scientist, director of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL )
- Hafiz, one of the most famous Persian poet
- Hasan Balyuzi, Bahai scholar
- Ladan and Laleh Bijani, siamese twins
- Mishkin - Qalam, calligrapher
- Saadi, writer and poet
- Salman the Persian, one of the first non-Arab Muslims
- Mohammad Hasan Shirazi, the highest Shiite Grand Ayatollah in the 19th century ( Marja -e taqlid )
- Seyyed Muhammad ʿ Ali Shirazi, known as the Bab
- Weddad Naziri, writer and poet
- Valerie Jarrett ( born 1956 ), American politician, close advisor to Barack Obama
- Nezameddin Faqih, professor
- Nader Ahriman (born 1964 ), painter
- Ahmad Batebi ( b. 1977 ), a human rights activist
- Azadeh Azimi, choir director, leads since 2000 in Shiraz publicly European classical music on
- Seyed Mohammad Oreyzi, architect and artist
- Mehrzad Madanchi, football player
- Persepolis, about 50 km northeast
- Marvdascht, about 45 km north
- Firuzabad, about 110 km south
- Sepidan, ski resort about 100 km north-west