As Shulchan Aruch (Hebrew שולחן ערוך ie " set table " ) is referred to in the 16th century, written by Yosef Karo and in the following revised by several generations of rabbis authoritative summary of religious rules ( Halachot ) of Judaism.
All commands and prohibitions in sufficient detail for everyday use generally described based on the Torah, on associated Midrashim and especially in the Babylonian Talmud. The intention of the author and the editors was a clear support for the (Jewish) lay in itself ( due to its complexity) ultimately only the scholar -disclosing rules of the religious Jewish life.
More older works also constitute sources of Jewish law, secondary sources were later Tosefta ( additions to the Mishnah ), Siphra (Commentary on Leviticus ) and Siphre (Commentary on Numbers and Deuteronomy ). The Shulchan Aruch thus forms a globally recognized by all the Jews for daily use written law, in which, in its origin ( genesis ) and smaller versions (see Vilna edition ) published, but not more recently taking place.
About the Author
The Shulchan Aruch of Joseph Karo was (1488-1575), rabbi in Safed written, who had already written the extensive commentary Bejit Joseph (Hebrew בית יוסף ) to work Arba'a Turim of Jacob ben Asher. At the Shulchan Aruch, which was a shorter and reduced to the essential summary of his larger work Bet Josef, he worked for over 20 years. The first edition appeared in Venice 1565th
The Shulchan Aruch follows the Arba'a Turim (literally " Four rows " ) in its division into four major subject areas:
- Orach Chaim, Hebrew אורח חיים ie " Way of life " (cf. Psalm 16, 11), contains the statutory provisions concerning the daily domestic life of the synagogue as Jews throughout the year. This department is divided into 27 chapters with 697 paragraphs, of which again each person has several parts.
- Jore De'a, Hebrew יורה דעה that is, " He teaches knowledge " and " teacher of knowledge" (cf. Isaiah 28, 9 ), treated in 35 chapters with 403 paragraphs Jewish dietary and purification laws, mourning laws and many other religious rules.
- Eben Ha - Ezer, Hebrew אבן העזר ie "Stone of Help " (cf. Samuel 4, 1, 5, 1, 7, 12) treated in 5 chapters with 178 paragraphs marriage laws.
- Hoshen Mishpat Ha -, Hebrew חושן משפט ie " Breastplate of justice" (cf. Exodus 28, 15, 30) in 29 chapters with 427 paragraphs, the entire civil and criminal law.
Because some subordinate points to differences between the final customs of Sephardim and Ashkenazim had trained, Moses Isserles wrote, in office from 1550 until his death in 1572 as a rabbi in Krakow and also a commentary on the " Arba'a Turim " under the title Darkej Moshe had written, additions and corrections to all four parts of the Shulchan Aruch, the same reputation as Karos words received at the Western Jews.
Soon after the preface of diamonds, but also that of Isserles, began the commentary on the Shulchan departments, with the oldest students Isserles ' come as Sefer me'iroth ' Enaim ( Sma ), Declaration on Hoshen Mishpat Ha -; Chelqath mechoqeq, Declaration on Eben Ha - Ezer. After that Turej Sahav, a commentary on all parts and Siftej Kohen (Chess ) to Jore De'a and Hoshen Mishpat Ha -. Then stomach Abraham, Orach Chaim and explanation than 6 Bet Shmuel Even Ha - Ezer to. After countless other comments were added to the present. Among Ashkenazi Jews, the Summary Kizzur Shulchan Aruch (1870 ) by Rabbi Salomon Full Fried ( 1804-1886 ) has received special application from Hungary, among the Oriental Jews of the Ben Ish Chai Yosef Chaim of ( 1832-1909 ) from Baghdad, which also has a represents a summary of the Shulchan Aruch. In the Kizzur Shulhan Arukh and subsequent scholarly opinions were taken.