The Autonomous Region of Sicily (Italian: Regione Siciliana ) is one of the 20 regions of the Italian Republic. It comprises the island of Sicily and some of these smaller offshore islands and island groups.
The region has an area of 25,703 km ² and 4,999,932 inhabitants (as of 31 December 2012), so their population density is comparable to that of Italy itself. Capital and government headquarters of the autonomous region as well as its most populous city is Palermo. Other large cities are Catania, Messina and Syracuse.
Sicily has the status of an autonomous region with special statute that guarantees its own parliament, a regional constitution ( the special statute ) and greater autonomy in the areas of politics, administration and finance.
The territory of the Autonomous Region of Sicily is ( the special statute ) defined the region in the Constitution. Next to the main island of Sicily It includes the archipelagos of the Egadi, Lipari and Pelagian Islands and the individual islands Ustica and Pantelleria.
The Constitution of the Autonomous Region of Sicily is the special statute that has the rank of the Italian Constitution Act. For a change of the Special Statute therefore, the same conditions as for the change of the Italian Constitution apply.
The special statute first defines the territory of the Autonomous Region of Sicily. It then defines the constitutional organs of the Autonomous Region of Sicily: the Regional Council as Parliament and the Regional Cabinet and the President of the Region as a government.
The special statute regulates, among other things, the areas in which the Autonomous Region of Sicily has full legislative powers. These are above all the cultural goods, agriculture, fishing, tourism and territorial issues. Further, the special statute guarantees the financial sovereignty of Sicily over their own tax revenues.
The Legislature of the Autonomous Region of Sicily is formed by the Sicilian Regional Assembly ( Assemblea Regionale Siciliana, ARS). The Regional Council consists of 90 members, who are elected every five years.
Of the 90 seats
- 80 determined by proporzionale choice in the provinces. It is a 5 % threshold.
- 9 seats are assigned on the list of the elected president of the region, including the president himself
- One seat is reserved for the presidential candidate, who was in second place in the election.
The seat of the Sicilian Regional Assembly is the Norman Palace in Palermo. The Sala d' Ercole ( Hercules Hall ) this palace serves as the Assembly Chamber.
The last election to the Regional Assembly ( 16th Parliament ) was held on 28 October 2012. Parliament president (Presidente dell'Assemblea ) has since Giovanni Ardizzone of the UDC. In the Regional Assembly, the following groups were formed.
The Executive Council of the Autonomous Region of Sicily is the President of the Region (Presidente della Regione ) and a cabinet ( Giunta Regionale ) of 12 ministers ( Assessori regionalization ) is formed.
Since 2001, the Minister must not be deputies of the Regional Assembly. Also since 2001, the President of the region ( Presidente della Giunta Regionale till then called ) was no longer elected by the Regional Assembly, but directly by the population.
Seat of the President and the Regional Government is the Palazzo d' Orleans in Palermo at Piazza Indipendenza west of the Norman Palace.
President of the Sicilian Region was since 14 April 2008, Raffaele Lombardo, founder and leader of the autonomist party MpA. He leaned on MPs of the parties MpA, PD, UDC, FLI and the centrist National Alliance per l' Italia ( ApI ). His government was, however, half of non-party experts ( Italian Tecnici ). After Lombardo was indicted in a Mafia trial, he came under pressure from Prime Minister Mario Monti returned on 31 July 2012 and paved the way for new elections.
On October 28, 2012, elected President of the Sicilian Region Rosario Crocetta (PD).
The major political parties are represented Italy in Sicily. There are also several smaller regional parties in Sicily. Of these Movimento per l' Autonomia - Alleati per il Sud and Nuova Sicilia While autonomist tendencies are still set federalist. The secessionist parties Movimento per l' Independenza della Sicilia and Partito del Sud, however, strive for the separation of Sicily from Italy.
The Autonomous Region of Sicily is divided into nine provinces, which are further divided into a total of 390 municipalities. The provinces are named after their respective capitals. The province with the largest population and the largest area is the province of Palermo, the most densely populated province is the province of Catania, and the province with most communities is the province of Messina.
The special status of the autonomous region of Sicily was adopted before the Constitution of the Italian Republic and signed by King Umberto II on May 15, 1946. With this statute, the separatist aspirations should be taken in Sicily the wind out of the sails. 1947, the first Sicilian Regional Assembly was elected. On February 26, 1948, the statute has been transformed into a constitutional law of the Italian Republic.
Until 2001 the President of the Region (Presidente della Giunta Regionale) was elected by the regional assembly. 2001, the direct election was introduced by the population and changed the official name to " President of the Region " (Presidente della Regione ).
State symbols of the autonomous region of Sicily are the coat of arms and the flag of Sicily. Both show the colors of the region, yellow and red, in triangular shape and before the symbol of the Triskele. Coat of arms and flag go back to the Sicilian Vespers in 1282. In its present form it has been declared in February 2000 to official symbols of the Autonomous Region of Sicily.