Map of the Seven Mountains with the 13 highest peaks
Seven Mountains 1900
The Seven Mountains is quite rheinisches, located in the southeast of Bonn and in the cities of King Winter and Bad Honnef low mountain range which consists of more than 50 mountains and hills. It has emerged volcanic origin and about 25.5 million years ago in the Oligocene. The last volcanic activity occurred in the Miocene and led to the emergence of the Petersberg. The Seven Mountains belongs completely to the Natural Park Seven Mountains, one of the oldest nature reserves in Germany. The protection is regulated in a specific set of rules. The nature reserve Seven Mountains with even greater protection obligation is somehow a little closer, however provide, adjacent to the north western part of the adjacent Ennert and in the south to the mountains adjoining northern half of the Rhine Westerwald volcanic ridge, the entire Seven Mountains. It is the largest contiguous protected area of North Rhine- Westphalia. The Seven Mountains was included in the list of 77 excellent national geotopes 2006.
The Seven Mountains bordering southeast Although directly to the ( natural environment ) Westerwald, however, is already to the Middle Rhine area (Lower Middle Rhine area ) were counted. While the border in the south is marked by the Schmelztal and on the east by the Logebachtal, it is in the west ( Rhine Valley ) and north ( Ennert ) less clearly pronounced.
- 5.1 history
- 5.2 Project National Park
- 5.3 Improvement Society for the Seven Mountains ( VVS)
- 6.1 traffic
- 6.2 trails
- 6.3 Attractions
The mountains of the Seven Mountains
The following, on the level below parent surveys are of importance ( height and position of each in brackets, which are "big seven mountains of the Seven Mountains " in bold):
- Great Mount of Olives ( 460.1 m East) with a summit restaurant Little Mount of Olives ( 331.7 m; northern tributary summit of the Great Mount of Olives, northeastern edge of the mountain )
Origin of the name " Seven Mountains"
The origin of the name " Seven Mountains" is not clear. There are several explanations:
Lower local distribution has the name " Siebenhaar Mountains". For the meaning of " Hair " as ( wooded ) mountain range, see Hardt ( toponym ) and see Haard, hair strand, Hardthöhe, Rothaargebirge, etc.
Emergence of the Seven Mountains
Before approximately 400-350 million years ago encamped in the time of the Devonian by the Devon Sea and the opening therein rivers bedrock greywacke, shale and sandstone from. Before about 350 to 280 million years ago this rock was pressed and folded by pressure. It formed the Variscan Mountains, the territory of which lasted from Brittany to Poland. Before about 67 to 58 million years, the Variscan mountains were eroded by environmental influences, such as wind and water to a hull mountains with rippled surface.
Before about 37 million years ago the North Sea shifted as a result of this reduction to the area of present-day Bonn and pulled in front of about 25 million years back in a northerly direction back. From about 28 million years ago, today it came in seven mountain region to volcanic activity, whereby large amounts trachytic ash were ejected and led to a few hundred meters thick originally Tuffablagerung. In the Tuffdecke trachyte, latite and alkali basalts penetrated in the form of cupolas, chimney fills and transitions. The strongest activity ended at about 22 million years ago, only the promotion of basaltic rocks lasted longer, it ended at most 15 million years ago (Walter, 1995).
Again, the layers were removed (especially ash) by influences of wind and water that were not resistant. Years ago, about 450,000, the Rhine started by the heaving Rhenish Slate Mountains incise. The numerous bends and kinks in the curve between Bingen and Bonn have emerged as free meander ( flow loop ) in a shallow valley and were cut in raising as Zwangsmäander. The Seven Mountains is characterized as " the core of the Central Rhine Volcanic Area ", which has a length of 35 km in the southwest-northeast direction has a length of 30 km in a northwest-southeast direction. From the rest of this volcanic region, it differs by a greater number and density of volcanic rock types.
Within millions of years formed as the Seven Mountains volcanic region.
Earlier use of the Seven Mountains
N early as the 1st century BC arose in the Seven Mountains, the first Roman quarries. The Romans also opened three quarries on the Drachenfels, the Rüdenet and the grandfather's chair. There was decomposed trachyte, which was transported by vessels on the Rhine. Probably was the hard rock the construction of prestigious buildings.
After the fall of the Roman Empire it came only in the 11th century to the reopening of numerous quarries. The now mined rocks were used to build many Rhenish churches. The construction of the Cologne Cathedral was started already in 1248 with stones of the Seven Mountains, the reduction for 312 years held on to the year 1560.
Other quarries were of the Cistercian abbey Heisterbach (present-day monastery Heisterbach ) operated and used for the construction of the monastery and the abbey church with Latitgestein.
In 1827 Königswinterer Steinhauer union acquired the mountain cone of Drachenfels and opened several quarries in the upper mountainside. A slumped into the valley from the castle ruins wall piece led to the cessation of quarrying by the royal government on May 4, 1828 in Cologne. The Prussian Treasury acquired in the following years the mountain cone of Drachenfels for 10,000 dollars and was able to obtain the Drachenfels castle ruins. The degradation in many other quarries in the Seven Mountains ( Stenzelberg, Wolkenburg, Ennert, Dollendorfer Hardt ) was not affected by this rescue operation, however.
Expenses incurred during the Devonian veins of non-ferrous metals copper, lead and zinc were mined since at least Roman times. In 1857 the discovery of a Roman silver coin was recorded in the books of the year in Bonn Rheinische Landesmuseum, which "was found at a depth of 18 feet " on the Virneberg. 1905 a Roman vessel was discovered with bronze objects in an old tunnel.
In Rheinbreitbach was the main St. Josefsgangzug where copper ore was mined essentially. In Schmelztal and Einsiedlertal lead and zinc ore were carved. Numerous mines existed in the Aegidienberger districts Neichen and Brüngsberg and nearby Quirrenbach. The northernmost occurrence of the mining area were at Benner Scheid.
With the decline of non-ferrous metal prices of mining came in the Seven Mountains from 1875 to a standstill.
Protection of the Seven Mountains
The numerous quarries between the 1st century AD and 19th centuries led to a gradual destruction of the landscape. The quarries threatened to zerwüsten the Seven Mountains completely. In order to save the most striking mountain and its castle ruins in front of the quarry operation and thus before the final change, expropriated the Prussian king, without having a law -making power to the owners of the Drachenfels. In 1836 the Prussian government acquired the Drachenfels castle ruins, including for the protection of nature for 10,000 dollars. For the protection of the Seven Mountains of VVS ( Beautification Association for the Seven Mountains) was founded in 1869, the number of wealthy citizens from Bonn belonged. After the concept of conservation was first enshrined in law in 1920, the Seven Mountains has been declared on June 7, 1922 by the Prussian Minister for Science, Art, and Education and of Agriculture and Forestry (along with the Lüneburg Heath ) nature reserve. It is thus one of the oldest nature reserves in Germany. A year later, the clear-cutting of forests were a regulation been closed and numerous plant and animal species under protection. Any act on mineral extraction activity was prohibited by another ordinance in 1930. It came to the cessation of all quarry activities.
It is no coincidence that the impetus for the establishment of nature parks in Germany by the conservationist and philanthropist Alfred Toepfer was made in a speech on 6 June 1956 in Bonn. Already in 1956 was the establishment of nature parks in Germany and the Seven Mountains was one of the first parks.
1971 by the Council of Ministers of the European Council, the Natural Park of Seven Mountains for the first time with the European Diploma (now European Diploma of Protected Areas ) excellent.
Project National Park
Between 2007 and 2009 the establishment of the 15 German and second North-Rhine/Westphalian National Parks, the Civil National Park Seven Mountains was discussed and, Bonn and the Rhine -Sieg district operated by the state. The plan was the appreciation of the state's share of the 4800 hectare nature reserve in the Natural Park Seven Mountains National Park. A national park center should be established for five million euros from state funds in Rhöndorf. In Bad Honnef of the National Park was rejected by large sections of the population; simultaneously was eventually banned in September 2009 the municipality by the first referendum the city's history with the 2009 federal election to lease the urban share of the natural park of the country; thus failed the National Park.
Beautification Association for the Seven Mountains ( VVS)
The VVS is a carrier of the nature park. It was founded on December 4, 1869 in Bonn. First President of VVS was Ernst Heinrich von Dechen. The main objective is the protection of the Seven Mountains. The forest inventory at the Drachenfels and the Lions' Den and some leased properties are owned by the VVS. Forestry, conservation and construction of trails are some subtasks. Currently the club has about 1,500 members. Today, the association has its seat in the " nature park " on Margaret height, where an information center for the Seven Mountains is housed.
Today's Seven Mountains
The Seven Mountains are a forested hillside. The Natural Park of Seven Mountains thereof an area of 4800 ha and about 200 km of marked hiking trails. The owners of the Seven Mountains are the cities of Bad Honnef and Bonn, the Beautification Club Seven Mountains, the Federal Republic of Germany, the former Mannesmann AG (not final clarified ownership succession) and numerous smaller forest owners. The Natural Park of Seven Mountains is now used as a recreation area and is used for agriculture and forestry (regulated deforestation, cultivation of wine, grain, etc. ) except for parts of the nature reserve.
Political attention is paid the Seven Mountains by the Federal Guest House ( official guest house of the constitutional organs of the Federal Republic of Germany ) at the Petersberg.
As the city King Winter for years massively identifies land in the Seven Mountains, in particular, the country roads L 331 ( King Winter Ittenbach ), L 268 ( Oberdollendorf - Oberpleis ) and L 490 (Upper Kassel- Birlinghoven ) that connect these areas to the job priorities in Bonn, congested at rush hour. Therefore, the city King Winter and a citizens' initiative calling for the Ennertaufstieg (also Siebengebirgsmuseum relief ) as part of the southern expressway, would the A links 562 to the A 3 with a run as a tunnel largely above ground and in a section of road through the Ennert (northern foothills of the Seven Mountains ). Other citizens' initiatives, the City of Bonn and a variety of city king winter reject this new road link.
Since the chances of implementation of the project have fallen from the Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan due to the removal of a traffic plan for the seven mountain region was created and alternative relief options checked. Now, measures such as a bypass of Itten creek and a tunnel through the Great Mount of Olives will be proposed. An improvement of public transport is, however, rejected by the transport planners of the Rhein- Sieg-Kreis, who continue working for the South Tangent.
The Rhine rising from Bonn to Wiesbaden via the most beautiful parts of the Seven Mountains. In King Winter Oberdollendorf a piece of the local wine trail is 2.2 km long involved in the Rhine gate.
Notable trails can also be found in the numerous valleys on the western slopes of the Seven Mountains. Examples are the Nightingale ( of King Winter outgoing) and Annatal / Tretschbachtal (of Rhöndorf outgoing).
In the Seven Mountains, there are next to the hiking and bicycle routes through the volcanic mountain region of attractions including:
- Chorruine monastery Heisterbach
- Castle Dragon Castle
- Arboretum Park Härle at the foot of the Seven Mountains in Bonn -Oberkassel
- Drachenfels and Drachenfelsbahn
- Sea Life Sea Life
- The Brückenhofmuseum in Oberdollendorf
- The wine trail in King Winter Oberdollendorf
- The Konrad- Adenauer-Haus in Rhöndorf
The park of the castle dragon Petersburg and the Arboretum Park Härle were included in the road of garden design between the Rhine and Meuse.
Legends and myths about the Seven Mountains
There are many legends about the Seven Mountains; the medieval legend of the nasty dragon is one of the best known.
It is about a dragon from his mountain - waited on trade ships sailing on the Rhine River - the Drachenfels. Once a ship was close enough, he spat fire in that direction and saw joyfully, as the crew burned or drowned in the waves of the Rhine.
One day, once again came along a ship at the Drachenfels. However, it was filled to the brim with powder, but this did not notice the dragon. He waited in a safe hiding on the hill slope and spat back his fire in this direction, as the ship was close enough. But he was just able to see how the ship caught fire - because in the next moment the ship exploded with a bang, you could listen to Cologne. The explosion tore the dragon far away, and he was never seen again.
The Seven Mountains and the outgoing King Winter Nachtigallental praised the well-known Cologne hymn writer Willi Ostermann with the song