The Silesian Piast dynasty was one of the five lines of the ruling dynasty of the Piast Silesian Piast .. five were senior Polish dukes.
In 600 AD, western Slavs migrated into the area around the Vistula and the Oder. The collective name Polans (such as " field residents " ) is not even mentioned in the Geographus Bavarus (9th century). The Polans should not be confused with the Poljanen also mentioned by the Primary Chronicle near Kiev. The first historically tangible Piast ruler was Duke Mieszko I († 992 ), who threw from his power base in Greater Poland from the neighboring region of Lesser Poland, Silesia and Pomerania, and his kingdom, which he still " Schinesghe " called, in Dagome Iudex formally presented the Pope to it can be confirmed by this. In 1000 Poland was founded by the Archdiocese of Gniezno (including Diocese of Breslau) a separate ecclesiastical province and by the coronation of Boleslaw I. the Kingdom, however, did not accept all of the following rulers the title of king.
In the vain hope of inheritance disputes to reduce, told Bolesław III. Wry-mouthed (1102-1138) on together with the introduction of Senioratsverfassung Poland among his four sons:
- Mazowiecki line ( died 1526 Duke Janusz III. )
- Kuyavian line ( extinct in 1388 with Duke Władysław )
- Malopolska line ( extinct in 1279 with Duke Bolesław V )
- Wielkopolska line ( extinct in 1296 with King Przemysław II )
- Silesian line ( extinct in 1675 with Duke Georg Wilhelm I. )
Ancestors of the Silesian Piast Duke Władysław II was " the displaced " and Agnes, daughter of the Austrian Margrave Leopold III. They were expelled in 1146 along with her sons of Władysław stepbrothers and were admitted on the Roman-German King Konrad III court.
Four years after the death of Władysław were his sons Bolesław I and Mieszko I return in 1163 with the help of Emperor Frederick I to Silesia, which they had to transfer her uncle Duke Bolesław Kraushaar. After the brothers had initially ruled together, it came in the wake of disputes to the division of the country. The older Boleslaw received funds and Lower Silesia with the center Wroclaw, Mieszko was the smaller Upper Silesian area Ratibor -Teschen, which in 1177 increased by the Kastellaneien Bytom and Auschwitz. 1202 had left his uncle Mieszko the area of Opole Boleslaw's son, Henry I, who as Mieszko IV was for one year Senior Duke of Poland 1210. At the same time the mutual inheritance between the Silesian Piastenzweigen was lifted. Thus, the line of the Dukes of Opole split off. After all, in 1232 was also Heinrich Senior Duke of Poland. His son, Henry II, had to fight hard for the position of Senior Duke. The last Silesians in this position was Henry IV Probus, Senior Duke Henry III. , He died 1290th
Already in 1289 under Duke Casimir II threw von Cosel - Bytom the first part of Silesian rulers of the Bohemian suzerainty. Until 1342 took up on Schweidnitz, all Silesian Piast their principalities by the King of Bohemia as a fief. After the Polish King Casimir III. the Great had already waived in 1335 in the Treaty of Trenčín any claims to Silesia, the incorporation of Silesia had become easily possible in the crown of Bohemia. The last Silesian Duchy came after the death of the childless Duke Bolko II in 1368, the Duchy of Schweidnitz as a Erbfürstentum to Bohemia. The testamentary transfer of this Duchy of Bohemia was the occasion of the marriage of Bolkos niece and heiress Anne of Schweidnitz with the King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV agreed.
In the male line became extinct, the dynasty of the Silesian Piast 1675 Georg Wilhelm von Liegnitz - Brieg - Wohlau, in 1707 women with his sister Charlotte of Holstein -Sonderburg- Wiesenburg.