Singing ( also: singing ) is the musical use of the human voice and probably the oldest and most primitive form of musical expression of man.

Song exists in many different forms and covers a wide range of sonic and musical possibilities of freely juxtaposed vowels in different pitch, volume, rhythm and Klanggepräge about lyrical, folk singing up to the virtuoso ornate art - singing ( bel canto ). Here, singing often based either on a conventional for an appropriate time, an appropriate culture or for a particular style of music sound aesthetics.

Although, using the same organs are involved ( diaphragm, lungs, vocal cords, vocal tract ) is singing differs from speech fundamentally by a larger spectrum of sound, greater dynamic differences, larger pitch differences, a more or less well-defined rhythmic structure and often precisely defined through the use of pitch in the framework of a scale or series.

For the music of the song has a great importance because it allows the integration on the one hand words in a musical line and bring the other hand, due to the individual nature of the human voice, spiritual and emotional content nonverbally direct expression.

For a professional singer adequate voice training and skilful coordination of vocal registers play an important role.

Production of the singing voice

Like the song Talk is produced by the interaction of the two vocal cords in the larynx and the approach areas. Numerous muscles cause a varying voltage of the vocal folds.

For the amount of voice ( pitch ) the length of the vocal cords and their vibration behavior are primarily responsible. So children have initially a very high voice, which decreases with the growth of the vocal cords. In boys, this growth is more pronounced than in girls and voice change marked the strongest growth phase.

In the 18th century, sometimes even up to the beginning of the 20th century, there were castrati who kept her childish high-pitched voice by surgery or mutilation, but this had to be paid with the loss of their fertility. Today, men sing falsetto with specially trained in a similar voice as a countertenor, alto or soprano. The authentic alternative to use boys' voices, is also practiced.

The singing with closed lips is called "Buzz ". The air is completely discharged through the nose, whereby only a very small amount of air is vibrated.

The functioning of the human voice can be greatly simplified with the cushion pipes compare ( cf. instruments and sound ); the "cushion" are the two vocal folds, which ( together with the cricoid cartilage and the epiglottis form the laryngeal skeleton) are facing each other and slightly against each other stretched inclined upwardly between the thyroid cartilage and two movable arytenoid cartilages.

Voice training and singing lessons

The vocal pedagogy is concerned with the construction of a suitable use for the musical voice. The professional training to become a professional singer in the field of classical music, jazz or pop music takes place at high schools or in private studios in Germany. The academic training takes at least eight semesters. Portions of the singing lessons are:

  • Body working with various methods such as exercise, Feldenkrais, Alexander Technique, Yoga, Kinesiology and Others
  • Vocal Training
  • Interpretation

The training for opera, pop music, jazz and musical differ fundamentally in the stylistics, but partly also in applied vocal technique. A classical vocal training often based on the practice of bel canto. In some modern works, however, the entire tonal flexibility of the human voice is used. At some universities there for a further course of study.

When training for pop or musical singing the " belting " technique is commonly used. In the musical field, the ability to speak and to dance to a predetermined choreography is also required to a greater extent.

Rock and metal singers are often self-taught without classical vocal training. In the professional field is still taken in this genre singing lessons to avoid vocal damage. An extreme form of the " singing " is Screamo.

Cultural aspects

Singing is part of the culture of all times and peoples, and can accompany all life situations. Ritual songs, children's songs, work songs and singing as elocution are just a few examples.

Individual singers / inside have been at all times pay particular attention of public figures around which to gather large groups of devotees to this day. From the classic singers such as Adelina Patti stage and Maria Callas on Chanson singers like Édith Piaf, to pop stars like Madonna, Michael Jackson and Robbie Williams successful singers have always been an attraction and an idol for people. In the case of Carlos Gardel seems to refer to the deceased tango singer even the entire city of Buenos Aires.

Other cultures numerous other forms and techniques of singing. Examples include the Mongolian throat singing and overtone singing. In several religions Chanting is practiced, a meditative style of singing.