Solar telescopes are special astronomical telescopes for the observation of phenomena in the so-called solar atmosphere. Among these:
- The photosphere (Greek light ball ) - those top 300 km of the sun's surface, of which the most energy is radiated (as light, ultraviolet and infrared), but also solar gas in the form of Eruptions (flares, prominences ) discharges
- Their interactions with the solar wind.
Special telescopes to observe these solar regions are:
- Tower Telescopes ( Solar towers ), on the platform of the coelostat ( a rotatable mirror system ) directs sunlight down. The focus of the lens can be visually or photographically observe the spectra of individual solar layers or even sunspots measure etc.
- Koronograf - an instrument for measuring the inner corona. The corona is far more than radiant sunlight is mirrored away by a conical aperture and special filters, creating a kind of artificial solar eclipse occurs.
- Spektroheliograf - for the production of solar images in a narrow spectral range. Of the spectrum is a certain wavelength by an optical gap, the monochromator, filtered out. Moving the gap over the solar image, obtained by a photodetector a scan of the sun in the desired " color" or layer depth.
- H -alpha telescope - to observe the sun in the light of ionized hydrogen at 656.28 nm, the so-called H -alpha spectral line
For visual observation of the Sun and its matter - eruptions also serve:
- Spektrohelioskop, which works similar to the Spektroheliograf
- Protuberance spectroscope, which also scans the sun and its ejected filaments
- Helioskop, dampen the sunlight in the glass and prisms.
- Magnetometer for measuring solar magnetic fields by means of Count Zeeman effect and its recording in magnetograms
- Bolometer for measuring the total radiation, and the solar constant
- Radio heliograph for detailed studies of the solar atmosphere by special interferometer
Known solar telescopes
- McMath - Pierce Solar Telescope ( Arizona).
- ( Taken May, 2012 operation, and since then the largest in Europe ) " Gregor " in Tenerife
- Sunrise ( telescopic ) - on a helium balloon. Test Drive 2007 Erstfahrt 2009.