A summer toboggan run is a plant similar to a very long slide on which you glide into the valley with a slide or roll. The driver can determine the speed by a brake system itself. In addition to the tracks, where the carriage does not seem out runs in gutters, are also rail- tracks, the Alpine Coaster, counted so called to the summer toboggan runs.
- 4.1 chairlifts and gondolas
- 4.2 tows
- 4.3 Lifter
- 4.4 Other uphill transport
Since May 2010 shall apply to the construction and operation example (revised August 2012 ), the standard DIN 33960-1 summer toboggan run - Part 1: Safety requirements and test methods or March 1, 2012, the same ÖNORM S 4730-1. However, those standards do not govern any construction law and seilbahn legal requirements, such as for the legal treatment as a building code system or as temporary structures. These concerns must be handled on an individual basis in obtaining governmental approvals according to local (eg local GAAP ) standards as before.
Previously, the policy for the construction and operation of the summer toboggan runs was used for assessment. These were of an international working group, composed of representatives of equipment manufacturers and testing organizations developed. In it, among other things, the generally permissible maximum attainable speed of 40 km / h ( / - 10%) was determined.
The common ancestor of summer toboggan runs and roller coasters in the 16th century in Russia. There, artificial mountains of wood were built, which is first, and later lapsed with sled on ice with wheeled carriage. Until the advent of modern summer toboggan runs, there was such plants in Germany; a Ibbenbüren is still in operation today.
The first modern summer toboggan runs were developed by ski lift operators who were in the snow-free months after a possible use of their facilities. Acted as pioneers Karl Josef Freiherr von Wendt, who trains with a channel developed in collaboration with the company Mannesmann conveyor technology from fiber cement and Josef Wiegand with sheets of stainless steel.
Opened in 1972 by Wendt, the first web with associated chairlift in Bestwig. Later it developed into the amusement park Fort Fun Adventure Land. Because of the asbestos content of the trough the tracks were shut down in late 2003. The first steel railway opened Wiegand 1975 in its ski and toboggan arena on the water dome. The now multiply modified plant is operated today.
To account for the increased need for security of the passengers, rail-mounted toboggan runs were developed. The first of this type was probably the plant on the Turracherhöhe, which was replaced in late 2006 by a more modern system. In the early 1990s the Alpine Coaster was developed in which the sledding on rails and the drivers are secured by straps. Such rail systems have since been produced in series. In 1997, the first plant of this type was opened on the water dome.
In addition to operating ski areas in the summer toboggan runs are frequently encountered as a stand alone attraction or theme parks. The longest toboggan run 3500 meters in the Alps is in Imst. Probably the biggest difference in height overcomes the summer toboggan run in the Serlesbahnen bodice im Stubaital at 640 meters above sea level to 2.8 km length. It is valid as the steepest alpine roller coaster. One of the longest summer toboggan run in Germany include the Alpsee Coaster in Immenstadt and Hasenhorn Coaster in Todtnau. Both are according to information -weather tracks and almost 3000 meters long each. The claims to be world's longest Allwetterrodelbahn is the Alpine Coaster Tobotronc in the Principality of Andorra. The most controversial track is the summer toboggan run Loreley. As she lies on the plateau of the Loreley and thus in the UNESCO World Heritage Upper Middle Rhine Valley, it came in advance of their construction to several years of discussions between government, citizens and environmentalists. UNESCO has now called for the dismantling of the web.
We can distinguish two fundamentally different constructions
- In Sink toboggan runs the road in the shape of a tub or trough. In this slide or roll the carriage without further guidance. Thus, the slide is not worn in the curves of the track, these are designed as steep turns. Nevertheless, it may come in more risky driving style to that sleigh flying off the tracks.
- Rail toboggan runs are constrained and can not leave the rail. Most the riders are strapped to the sled, which prompted a falling out of the track is almost impossible. Since the sled similar to a roller coaster (English Rollercoaster ) run on rails, the name Alpine Coaster was born. The term is a brand name of the company Wiegand, but has established itself colloquially known as generalized brand name also for similar systems from other manufacturers.
Both types can be distinguished further.
Trays made of fiber cement or plastic
Since the principle of the tracks was not protected with fiber cement gutters, similar lines are produced by different companies. Today, instead of the channel is made of fiber cement, usually made of plastic. It is also possible to incorporate a heater, so that an operation in winter is possible. The curves of the track are inflated in order to prevent falling out of the carriage.
The slides slide mostly on plastic runners. Accelerating wheels are lowered by pressing a lever, thereby reducing the friction. To brake, the lever is pulled to the body, the wheels lift and rubber brake pads are pressed onto the web. By slipping the ride this sled type most closely comparable with that of (winter ) sledge.
Trays made of stainless steel
The principle is basically similar to the cement and plastic sheets. The production of stainless steel provides increased wear resistance of the track. In addition runner sled also roll carriage were developed. Instead of slipping on skids, which is based on a metal frame carriage moves on four wheels. Braking is also here with rubber blocks which can be pressed with a lever on the roadway.
During vehicle operation must be set when the runner sled in wet weather, the roller carriage have enough liability even in the rain. To increase the braking force in addition Rain brake pads are contaminated from a softer rubber compound.
A related business is the driving Bobkartbahn. The fairway here is also made of stainless steel and is similar to those of the summer toboggan run. However, the vehicles roll here no mountain down, but are driven by an electric motor, which is supplied via attached next to the track power rails. The speed is controlled by the driver via a lever. Raising is prevented by an electronic controller of the drive.
The summer toboggan run is to the Bobkartbahn like the roller coaster to the powered coaster.
Monorail toboggan runs
Since it came falling out of the track or falls from the carriage again to injury, seemed bound variants have been developed. One of the oldest known monorail toboggan runs was the degraded end 2006 Summer toboggan run on the Turracherhöhe. Even today monorail toboggan rides to be built by the Austrian manufacturer Brandauer. The rollers of the carriage engage around the elevated tubular rail from above, the sides and partly from below, so that derailment of the carriage is impossible. Advantage of modern monorail toboggan run is due to easy, so that such systems are particularly suitable for mounting on the ski slopes. Most such systems for safety must cease to operate when wet.
The manufacturer VOROKA tracks can be among the monorails. As a leader, serves a plastic splint that has a track leading increase in the middle.
The sledding in this construction, the company Wiegand on four -pipe rails. On the two outer tubes drive the wheels, the two inner tubes are inside, embraced by the brake up and down, so that the carriage can not derail. Passengers are strapped with belts on the carriage. With the two lateral levers, the brakes are released or drawn. The braking system of these pathways is also designed for moisture and even snow, so that Alpine Coaster can be operated throughout the year. Therefore, these systems are often called all-season or all-weather toboggan run.
A similar system, the company offers Fun Construct under the name Rolba Bob. The slide also run on two tubes. The brakes are on the other hand also to this.
Chair lifts and cable cars
In order to carry on their departure position on the mountain the vehicles are used different systems. The simplest variant is the carriage by hand to the chair or gondolas of the passengers transported mountain railway to attach it, or between persons gondolas or armchairs use separate buckets for the carriage transport and manually discharged back into the mountain. The slides can also be transported on trolleys in gondolas gondolas (alternating with passengers ), loading and unloading done manually, the empty trolleys are brought into the valley with the gondolas again.
The Wiegand has developed for their facilities and a system that automatically appended with the sled on a chairlift and be hung up again.
The use of drag lifts for mountain transport can be found in all systems, most lifts are used to. In the valley towing be hung on a hook mounted on the carriage by hand. The slide is so occupied with the passenger dragged up on a track path ( or channel Coaster rail) the mountain. Above, the path leads away to the side under the lift, so that the loop slides off the hook again.
The tow path is traveled backwards in some plants, especially on steep driveways. By a mountain, the carriage must then be brought forward to the downhill track by hand. With other systems you will be dragged forward. Above can then follow without interruption after release of the towing the descent, the path then consists of a closed loop from downhill and uphill route.
This system transports the occupied carriage with passengers also in a closed cycle forward to the mountain. These runs within the uphill trough or between the coaster rails an endless steel cable similar to a simple rope tow in order to drive up the slide at the base station and automatically engage. At the mountain station they also dissolve automatically and the descent may be commenced without changing or changing lanes.
Other uphill transport
Some smaller plants was entirely omitted lifts. The slide must be manually pulled or pushed up the mountain. In particular this is the case for all tracks of the manufacturer VOROKA. In some installations, own transport cableways were constructed for the carriage transport. The passengers are carried by a chair or gondola up the mountain, while the carriages are transported hanging on a parallel lift. The slides are automatically appended to this lift and hung up again.