Southern Manifesto

The Southern Manifesto was a protest against the racial integration of the public facilities in the United States. It was signed in the spring of 1956 of 96 politicians from Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia.


The document dealt largely with the historical landmark judgment of the Supreme Court of the United States, which dealt with the issue of racial segregation in public schools (Brown v. Board of Education). The first version was written Thurmond of electricity, with the final final version of Richard B. Russell came. It was signed by 19 senators and 77 House members, including the entire congressional delegation to the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Virginia. With two exceptions, namely the two Republicans Joel Broyhill and Richard Harding Poff of Virginia, all signatories were Southern Democrats. That almost exclusively Democrats were involved in the preparation of this writing, was largely due to the fact that the Republicans 1953-1961 under the president ( Dwight D. Eisenhower ) presented the government.

The white population of the Southern states felt hurt in their traditions by the jurisprudence of the Supreme Court. The explanation stoked the resistance of this segment of the population to further that reached up to lynchings. Early 1960s were even black churches and children victims of attacks.

The School Segregation Laws were among the most well-known and tolerated Jim Crow laws of the then American South and some northern states.

The Southern Manifesto accused the Supreme Court of " clear abuse of judicial power ." It was further agreed that " would be rendered all legitimate means to an annulment of this decision, which represented a contradiction to the Constitution and you would use the influence to prevent its enactment. "

Core content

"This unauthorized judgment of the Supreme Court in the cases of the public school ends in always known result that men with unlimited power to change the existing law. "

"The original Constitution does not mention education. Neither the 14th Amendment nor any other does. The previous debates on the presentation of the 14th supplement to show obvious that there was no intention that the education system, which was borne by the States should be influenced. "

"This unwarranted exercise of power by the Court, contrary to the constitution, caused chaos and confusion in the States that are affected mainly it. It destroys the amicable relations between the white and black races which have developed over 90 years of persistent efforts by the good will of both races. The Court of hatred and mistrust sown where once there was friendship and understanding. "


Senate of the United States


  • Albert Gore (D - Tennessee)
  • Estes Kefauver (D - Tennessee)
  • Lyndon B. Johnson (D -Texas) (former Senate majority leader, Johnson was not asked to sign the document)

House of Representatives of the United States




  • Charles Edward Bennett ( D)
  • James A. Haley (D)
  • Albert S. Herlong (D)
  • Donald Ray Matthews (D)
  • Paul Rogers ( D)
  • Robert L. F. Sikes (D)





North Carolina:


South Carolina:


  • Jere Cooper ( D)
  • Clifford Davis ( D)
  • James B. Frazier (D)
  • Tom J. Murray ( D)