Special economic zone
A Special Economic Zone is a mostly spatially delimited geographical area within a state for which there are legal and administrative benefits to investors. These generally relate to the customs and tax law, but sometimes also in other areas of law such as environmental or labor or social legislation. Differences are industrial park (industrial parks ), free trade zones ( free trade zones, short FTZ ), export processing zones (export processing zones, short EPZ ), free economic zones ( free economic zones, short EPZs), free zones ( free ports) and Enterprise Zones ( urban enterprise zones ). The aim of the establishment of such a zone is to increase domestic and foreign investment usually. These are intended to set out economic and technological impetus for the development of the " hinterland ". Special economic zones there are, among others, in the People's Republic of China, India, North Korea, Uruguay, Russia, Vietnam, Moldova, the United Arab Emirates and Kazakhstan. In the Third World countries, they were built with the help of the World Bank since the 1960s. The Ukrainian city of Slavutych, a " substitute" for the contaminated from the Chernobyl disaster Pripyat city was declared a special economic zone.
The establishment of special economic zones is not compatible with EU law. The amounts reported in Poland SEZs had to abolish the tax advantages granted there until the end of 2011.
People's Republic of China
In the Chinese Special Economic Zones Special is mainly for the economic system and economic policy. This means that the central government SEZs are the right to pursue a particular economic policy. There are special tax breaks for investments in special economic zones. The economic system of special economic zones based on the following four principles:
- The construction is done in order to attract foreign capital and to use
- The prevailing economic entities are Sino- foreign joint ventures and partnerships and foreign companies
- The production is designed primarily for export
- The economic activities are determined by the market.
Special Economic Zones have been in the national planning (including financial planning ) and have a special status in their economic management, the same rights as a province. The local government a special economic zone has the right to legislate.
List of Special Economic Zones
The former British and Portuguese lease Regions of Hong Kong and Macao are regarded as special economic zones, but have greater internal political autonomy ( Special Administrative Region ). In addition, the People's Republic has the entire coast of the Korean to Vietnamese border (except for the mouth of the Huang He) to the open coast and the ports of Dalian (former Russo- Japanese leased territory ), Qinhuangdao, Tianjin, Yantai (near the former British lease port Weihai ), Qingdao (formerly German - Japanese leased territory of Tsingtao ), Lianyungang, Nantong, Shanghai, Wenzhou, Fuzhou, Guangzhou (Canton), Zhanjiang (formerly French leased territory ) and Beihai declared open coastal cities - all of them former treaty ports. In addition, many cities were re-opened in the interior.
There are among economists doubt whether the majority of the approximately 60 SEZs contribute the amounts invested again as tax revenue.
According to the Chinese model, and with South Korean investment four special economic zones have been established since 2000 in North Korea:
- Kaesong Industrial Zone
- Touristic region Kumgang -san
- Special Administrative Region of Sinuiju
Economic experts were in 1990 divided as to whether a special economic zone for East Germany should be established. So advocated a government officially appointed panel of experts led by former First Mayor of Hamburg Klaus von Dohnanyi and the FDP for the establishment of such a zone. However, some experts thought they were tax and tariff law and with regard to EU laws unenforceable.
( - SEZ Special Economic Zones) along the lines of China convert - In April 2000, the Indian government, the eight state export processing zones ( EPZ Export Processing Zones ) decided, in special economic zones. These are located in:
- Chennai ( Tamil Nadu )
- Falta (West Bengal )
- Kandla (Gujarat)
- Kochi ( Kerala )
- Noida ( Uttar Pradesh )
- Santa Cruz (Mumbai, State of Maharashtra )
- Surat (Gujarat)
- Visakhapatnam ( Andhra Pradesh )
SEZs were later in Indore ( Madhya Pradesh ), Jaipur (Rajasthan) and Kolkata (West Bengal ) was established, 61 more have been approved and are in planning or under construction.
In the Indian SEZs be exempted from duties. The companies located there will have free access to the Indian domestic market. In addition, the government offers a number of other incentives such as tax breaks or even - adopts over time as well as statutory exemptions. The aim is to attract foreign investors and to build internationally competitive, export-oriented industries.
Officially, there was in the 90s in Russia only a special economic zone Jantar in Kaliningrad. Due to the lack of industrial development in the Kaliningrad Oblast in the Cold War, a law was passed over a special economic zone in 1991. 1996 was issued an improved law because the structures were not provided by inefficiency and corruption of the hoped-for success. 2006, the status of special economic zone was finally fixed on the durability of 25 years. Currently being discussed on a special gambling zone in Kaliningrad.
At the beginning of the 21st century began in Russia, an intensive discussion on special economic zones. The idea of creating several special economic zones in Russia on the Chinese model (especially in Siberia and the Far East ), former Prime Minister Yevgeny Primakov is attributed in his capacity as President of the Russian industry and commerce. Under the presidency of Vladimir Putin finally a law on special economic zones in the Russian Federation was adopted in 2005, which in the various oblasts stimulated a competition. A Federal Agency for Management of Special Economic Zones was built, which is responsible for the implementation of the program.
By end 2009, 15 SEZs have been designed and confirmed, including, but two industry - Special Economic Zones ( Jelabuga, Lipetsk ), 4 technology -oriented special economic zones (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Dubna, Tomsk ) and seven special economic zones for tourism and recreation. Alone in the Baikal region (Irkutsk, Buryatia ) and in the Altai region ( Altai Krai, Republic of Altai ) are each two tourist special economic zones in the building. On 31 December 2009, the Russian government has also decided to set up in the Khabarovsk region on the territory of the region Sovetskaya Gavan, including the territory of the port of the same name, another special economic zone.
United Arab Emirates
Special economic or free trade zones, for example in Dubai, Ras al -Khaimah, Ajman and Fujairah furnished. Only here companies may be established without domestic partner and apply to their taxation preferential terms. How now differentiated the system of free trade zones, may be shown by the example of Dubai (as of mid 2009):
- Jebel Ali Free Zone ( Freeport Zone, surrounding surfaces far into the hinterland )
- Dubai Internet City FC ( no content restrictions, private suffix)
- Dubai Media City FC ( International productions, pad -free)
- Knowledge Village FZ ( unconditionally branches of international universities )
- Dubai Airport FZ ( as Freeport Zone, large surrounding areas)
- Gold and Diamond Park FC ( attracts all the Arabs and half of Asia to Dubai )
- Cars and Automotive FZ ( cheaper automobiles)
- Metals and Commodities FZ (promotes the basic fabric cover)
- Dubai Silicon Oasis FZ ( a Silicon Valley clone, tax- reduced )
- Dubai Maritime City FC ( Maritime Services, tax- reduced )
- Dubai Aid City FC ( International health services, tax- reduced )
Special Economic Zone Tierra del Fuego ( Argentina part ) since 1972, led to strong economic development of cities Ushuaia and Río Grande.
In the special zone for the development of the industrial port of Mariel, about 40 kilometers west of Cuba's capital Havana, particularly favorable customs and tax regulations for foreign investors shall apply from 1 November 2013. The special economic zone also represents a challenge for the United States, which maintained an embargo against Cuba for decades. Cuba seems to succeed just 120 nautical miles off the coast of Florida to establish an international trading port.