The term sports are different movement, play and forms of competition summarized, which are usually associated with physical activities of the people, without serving of commodity production, hostilities out the transport of goods or luggage, or the sole change of place. The word itself was borrowed in the 19th century by the English sports, which stands for disport aphäretisch and is borrowed from Old French. For people who operate in different sports sports, there is also the term athlete. Athletes who participate in competitive sports are often referred to as athletes. As an academic discipline, there is the sports science and sports medicine.
"Since the beginning of the 20th century, sports has become a colloquial, worldwide used concept. Therefore, a precise or even clear conceptual distinction can not be operated. What is generally meant by sport, is less a question of scientific dimension analysis, but is much more determined by the daily as well as theoretical use of the historically grown and traditional integrations in social, economic, political and legal conditions. In addition, changed, expanded and differentiated the factual events of the sport and bustle even the understanding of the concept of sport. "
This quote illustrates that the meaning behind the term sports assignments are very much influenced by the colloquial usage and the context in which the term is used sport. For the German Olympic Sports Confederation ( DOSB) is, for example, the ( physical ) motor activity in the foreground. Brain Games, the training of animals as well as motor sport without inclusion of such motor activities therefore do not meet the sports understanding of the DOSB. Nevertheless, the DOSB has recognized chess as a sport; the International Olympic Committee (IOC ) even chess and bridge.
Colloquially with sports often competition and performance are connected, which is manifested not only in terms such as Puzzle, Memory sport or e- sport, but is also reflected in the claim of various associations to be recognized by the IOC as a sport.
In addition, this term's meaning has historical reasons. When sport since the late 19th century used as a new phenomenon in the German-speaking world, more and more, he came across the phenomenon gymnastics. Thus, two very different concepts of body and movement culture were compared with antithetical. Just the term sports stand for the strengthening of the notion of competition and for the discharge of standardized, measurable and often pretend competition situations. Today, the term includes sports as an umbrella term also concepts that were then binned by the term gymnastics. Sport can thus be understood both as a body and movement culture as well as competition or competition culture. Depending on the view, the concept of sport as a rule, both phenomena that satisfy both aspects as well as those that are either predominantly the motor body movement aspect of concern (eg, strength training, private morning exercise or jogging motion) or essentially to the competition aspect ( Chess, Motor Sports, bodybuilding competitions ).
For the history of the sport is significant that he was originally opposed to the match the seriousness of gainful employment or military conflict. So he had to get rid of religious reservations, as they were against the gambling, and could be similar to dance and theater at first only in the court unfold (hunting, tournament ).
Sport as a cultural movement
A general distinction is width and competitive sports. There are also incurred in the recent past categories Extreme sports and fun sports, some of which are very different from traditional sports. Sports can be operated as a team sport (eg ball sports ) or as individual sport.
Sport is practiced in different social contexts and forms a significant part of leisure and entertainment culture. Besides the traditional sports clubs and school sport occur in the area of grassroots sport since the 1980s, increasingly, commercial gyms. In addition, is also being driven beyond these structures in the private sphere sport, either alone or with the family or friends (examples: jogging, running club ). In the field of competitive sports, the structures are much more complex; therefore, reference is made at this point only to the relevant articles. With increasing integration of people with disabilities develop in recent times, more and more disabled sports diverse kinds, which are often operated on competitive sports level.
Could in Meyers Lexikon from 1888 still be said: "As a key feature of the sport is finally necessary to state that the exercise not of earning money because of happening " (vol. 15, p 176), this can today because of the existence are no longer regarded by professional athletes as a feature. In addition, the commercial interests of powerful third parties are not to be underestimated (eg large corporations as sponsors, sponsors or patrons ), the image transfer of sports or athletes on their businesses hope to. This is the internal difference of sport as a spectacle and body cult. In addition, the width port is connected as by sports equipment and sportswear significantly with economic interests.
There is hardly any doubt about the direct benefits of physical training on the heart and circulation. However, 45 percent of German adults are not driving them not exercise and only one in eight reached the current recommendations for adequate physical activity. Here, a new study shows the high health effect, note that sport at a young age getting healthy into old age.
Sports and politics
In the course of a debate on the possible inclusion of sport as a national objective in the German Basic Law, the former federal judge Dieter Grimm summed up the positive and negative social impact of sport as follows:
Passive sports consumption
In addition to active sports exercise the pursuit of sporting events as a spectator at the venue or via the mass media has an important social value. Performance athletes and professional teams are often worshiped as idols. The extreme identification with athletes leads to the phenomenon of sports fan. Especially in football a passive sport cult has formed specifically in Europe, the football fans, " Ultras " and football hooligans ( " hooligans " ) is maintained. Such a fan culture often focuses in different countries on different sports.